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Life Sciences - Oct 28
Life Sciences
Pterodactyls and related winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs steadily improved their ability to fly, becoming the deadly masters of the sky, over the course of millions of years. A new study, ‘150 million years of sustained increase in pterosaur flight efficiency' , published in the journal Nature has shown that pterosaurs - a group of creatures that became Earth's first flying vertebrates - evolved to improve their flight performance over their 150 million-year existence, before going extinct at the same time as dinosaurs 66 million years ago.
Earth Sciences - Oct 28
Earth Sciences

Stromboli, the 'lighthouse of the Mediterranean', is known for its low-energy but persistent explosive eruptions, behaviour that is known scientifically as Strombolian activity. This feature has long been an attraction for tourists and volcanologists from all over the world.

Life Sciences - Oct 28

Microscopic analysis of the teeth of pterosaurs has revealed new insights into the diets and behaviours of Earth's earliest flying reptiles.

Chemistry - Oct 28
Chemistry

A major goal in organic synthesis is to develop efficient reactions to convert feedstock chemicals (otherwise known as raw or natural materials) into valuable reagents that can be used to create pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

Pharmacology - Oct 28
Pharmacology

In 2003, the painkiller paracetamol became available in Switzerland in tablets with a higher dose of the active ingredient. This correlates with an increase in cases of paracetamol poisoning in the country, as a data analysis by ETH researchers shows.


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Life Sciences - Paleontology - 28.10.2020
Giant lizards learnt to fly over millions of years
Giant lizards learnt to fly over millions of years
Pterodactyls and related winged reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs steadily improved their ability to fly, becoming the deadly masters of the sky, over the course of millions of years. A new study, ‘150 million years of sustained increase in pterosaur flight efficiency' , published in the journal Nature has shown that pterosaurs - a group of creatures that became Earth's first flying vertebrates - evolved to improve their flight performance over their 150 million-year existence, before going extinct at the same time as dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - 28.10.2020
Using a volcano's eruption ‘memory' to forecast dangerous explosions
Using a volcano’s eruption ‘memory’ to forecast dangerous explosions
Stromboli, the 'lighthouse of the Mediterranean', is known for its low-energy but persistent explosive eruptions, behaviour that is known scientifically as Strombolian activity. This feature has long been an attraction for tourists and volcanologists from all over the world. Occasionally, however, more intense and sudden explosions occur, most recently in July and August last year (2019).

Chemistry - 28.10.2020
Novel approach in organic chemistry enables boron to be added to molecules with high precision
Novel approach in organic chemistry enables boron to be added to molecules with high precision
A major goal in organic synthesis is to develop efficient reactions to convert feedstock chemicals (otherwise known as raw or natural materials) into valuable reagents that can be used to create pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. A powerful approach to this core scientific challenge is toconvert carbon-hydrogen bonds into carbon-heteroatom bonds.

Life Sciences - Paleontology - 28.10.2020
Pterosaurs undergo dental examination to reveal clues about diets and lifestyles
Microscopic analysis of the teeth of pterosaurs has revealed new insights into the diets and behaviours of Earth's earliest flying reptiles. Researchers at the University of Leicester's Centre for Palaeobiology Research and the University of Birmingham used dental microwear analysis to look at the wear patterns still visible on the teeth of 17 different species of pterosaur.

Pharmacology - 28.10.2020
Paracetamol poisonings up
Paracetamol poisonings up
In 2003, the painkiller paracetamol became available in Switzerland in tablets with a higher dose of the active ingredient. This correlates with an increase in cases of paracetamol poisoning in the country, as a data analysis by ETH researchers shows. Paracetamol is a popular source of pain relief. In Switzerland, it is available over the counter in 500 milligram tablets, but also in double the dose, in 1,000 milligram (1 gram) tablets when prescribed by a physician.

Health - Life Sciences - 28.10.2020
Age and pre-existing conditions increase risk of stroke among COVID-19 patients
Age and pre-existing conditions increase risk of stroke among COVID-19 patients
Fourteen out of every 1,000 COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital experience a stroke, a rate that is even higher in older patients and those with severe infection and pre-existing vascular conditions, according to a report published this week. Even though the incidence of stroke among COVID-19 patients is relatively low, the scale of the pandemic means that many thousands of people could potentially be affected worldwide Hugh Markus COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, affecting millions of people worldwide.

Health - Pharmacology - 28.10.2020
Antiviral drugs trialled in the early stages of COVID-19
Two antiviral drugs are being given to COVID-19 positive adults to establish if they stop the virus replicating, as part of a trial led by UCL scientists. The FLARE trial aims to see if favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir, alone or in combination, can inhibit viral replication in early infection - within the first few days of illness.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.10.2020
Yale finds neuron behind fatal anorexia, and solution in high-fat diet
Researchers have long known that many people (mostly women) suffering from anorexia face a high risk of death. But, until now, they didn't know what causes the eating disorder to turn fatal.  In a research letter published in the Oct. 26 edition of Nature Metabolism , Yale researchers describe a specific neuron that appears to play an important role in whether anorexia becomes deadly.  They also discovered a potential treatment: a high-fat diet.

Health - Campus - 28.10.2020
Poor memory tied to attention lapses and media multitasking
Stanford researchers are connecting the dots between attention and memory to explain why we remember certain things and forget others, why some people remember better than others and how media multitasking affects how well we recall. The eyes may be the windows to the soul, but they can also provide insightful glimpses into memory.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 28.10.2020
An artificial cell on a chip
An artificial cell on a chip
Researchers at the University of Basel have developed a precisely controllable system for mimicking biochemical reaction cascades in cells. Using microfluidic technology, they produce miniature polymeric reaction containers equipped with the desired properties. This "cell on a chip" is useful not only for studying processes in cells, but also for the development of new synthetic pathways for chemical applications or for biological active substances in medicine.

Electroengineering - Physics - 27.10.2020
Researchers break magnetic memory speed record
A microscope image of the structures used to initiate the magnetization switching. (Image by K. Jhuria) Spintronic devices are attractive alternatives to conventional computer chips, providing digital information storage that is highly energy efficient and also relatively easy to manufacture on a large scale.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.10.2020
3D-printed neck collar shortlisted for Design of the Year
A UCL clinical researcher who developed an innovative 3D printed neck collar, helping transform the lives of people with serious neurological disorders, has been shortlisted for the prestigious 'Beazley Designs of the Year 2020'. Dr Luke Hale (UCL Surgery and Interventional Science) is the lead designer behind an innovative workflow process, which combines 3D scanning, procedural design and 3D printing to create personalised support braces.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.10.2020
Bern researchers identify sleep as possible target to improve recovery after ischemic stroke
Bern researchers identify sleep as possible target to improve recovery after ischemic stroke
Until today neurorehabilitation is the only approach that promotes recovery after stroke. Researchers at the Neurology Department of the University of Bern and Inselspital have provided first evidence that sleep could be targeted to improve post-stroke recovery. espite spending nearly one-third of our life asleep, many of the biological mechanisms and functions of sleep remain a mystery to modern neuroscience.

Astronomy / Space Science - 27.10.2020
Lighting a path to Planet Nine
The search for Planet Nine - a hypothesized ninth planet in our solar system - may come down to pinpointing the faintest orbital trails in an incredibly dark corner of space. That's exactly what Yale astronomers Malena Rice and Gregory Laughlin are attempting with a technique that scoops up scattered light from thousands of space telescope images and identifies orbital pathways for previously undetected objects.

Chemistry - Computer Science - 27.10.2020
AI helps molecular engineers design custom plastics
Imagine a plastic bag that can carry home your groceries, then quickly degrade without harming the environment. Or a super-strong, lightweight plastic for airplanes, rockets, and satellites that can replace traditional structural metals in aerospace technologies.  Machine learning and artificial intelligence have accelerated the ability to design materials with specific properties like these.

Life Sciences - 27.10.2020
Self-repair mechanism in cells
As cells bump into each other, forces cause them to move and shake, or even sometimes rupture. "Cells are constantly generating forces and responding to them. They are being pulled on by their environment," said Jonathan Winkelman, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago. Winkelman works in the lab of Margaret Gardel, professor in the Department of Physics and the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.10.2020
The sweet spot of flagellar assembly
The sweet spot of flagellar assembly
Building the driving machinery of bacteria, the flagella, requires numerous proteins to be assembled. Adding sugar and the presence of a control point are two key steps identified by UNIGE scientists. To build the machinery that enables bacteria to swim, over 50 proteins have to be assembled according to a logic and well-defined order to form the flagellum, the cellular equivalent of an offshore engine of a boat.

Health - 27.10.2020
What do breast cancer cells feel inside the tumour?
Using a new technique, a team of McGill University researchers has found tiny and previously undetectable 'hot spots' of extremely high stiffness inside aggressive and invasive breast cancer tumours. Their findings suggest, for the first time, that only very tiny regions of a tumor need to stiffen for metastasis to take place.

Health - 27.10.2020
Smoking cessation and high-risk drinking increased in lockdown
The percentage of people who reported stopping smoking more than doubled after the Covid-19 lockdown was implemented in March, according to a new study by UCL researchers. The research also found that high-risk drinking increased after lockdown despite the proportion of adults trying to reduce their alcohol intake being twice as high as before lockdown.

Life Sciences - Environment - 27.10.2020
A Census of the Soil Microbiome
Many people have experienced the mysterious death of a houseplant. Despite ample water and sunlight, something invisible seems to happen under the soil's surface to sabotage the plant's health. Just as communities of microbes live in the human gut and influence human health, the so-called soil microbiome of bacteria and fungi intimately influences plant health starting at the root.
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