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Physics/Materials Science
23.02.2018
Young children use physics, not previous rewards, to learn about tools
Young children use physics, not previous rewards, to learn about tools
Children as young as seven apply basic laws of physics to problem-solving, rather than learning from what has previously been rewarded, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Earth Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
23.02.2018
Sipping hot fruit teas can lead to tooth erosion
An investigation by scientists at King's College London into why some people suffer tooth erosion while others don't has found that it's not just what they eat and drink, but how they eat and drink, that increases their chances of developing the condition. The research, reviewed in the British Dental Journal, identifies the risk factors and damaging habits associated with the consumption of acidic foods that result in the loss of tooth enamel and dentine, known as erosive tooth wear.
Art and Design
23.02.2018
Neanderthals were artistic like modern humans, study suggests
Researchers have found the first major evidence that Neanderthals, rather than modern humans, created the world's oldest known cave paintings - suggesting they may have had an artistic sense similar to our own. An international study involving Durham University shows that paintings in three caves in Spain were created more than 64,000 years ago - 20,000 years before modern humans arrived in Europe.
Life Sciences
23.02.2018
Kids see words and faces differently from adults
A new study finds that young children's brains have not yet fully developed the vision circuits they need to understand words and recognize faces, a finding that could help in understanding how children learn to read. Young children literally see words and faces differently from adults. Where adults can most easily comprehend a word when they look at it straight on, children need to look a bit up and to the left.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Study in mice suggests personalised stem cell treatment may offer relief for progressive MS
Study in mice suggests personalised stem cell treatment may offer relief for progressive MS
Scientists have shown in mice that skin cells re-programmed into brain stem cells, transplanted into the central nervous system, help reduce inflammation and may be able to help repair damage caused by multiple sclerosis (MS).
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
22.02.2018
New potential drug target for common but deadly parasitic disease found
It's commonly known as the cat parasite and has found itself in the headlines after medication prices recently skyrocketed in America. Now researchers at the University of Glasgow have found a potential new weakness in the toxoplasmosis-causing parasite, potentially paving the way for new drug development for the disease.
Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Air pollutants linked to abnormal fetal growth
Chinese mothers who were exposed to a high level of certain air pollutants during pregnancy had a higher risk of abnormal fetal growth, according to a new Yale School of Public Health (YSPH) study. The findings, published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, were based on data collected from more than 8,000 women in Lanzhou, China from 2010 to 2012.  The researchers said that, to their knowledge, it is the first study of its kind to be conducted in areas with very high air pollution levels.
Life Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
22.02.2018
Seeing nanoscale details in mammalian cells
W. E. Moerner and his lab members peer inside mammalian cells, producing intricately detailed, 3-D images of the tiny structures within and tracking molecules' subtle movements. In 2014, W. E. Moerner , the Harry S. Mosher Professor of Chemistry at Stanford University, won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for co-developing a way of imaging shapes inside cells at very high resolution, called super-resolution microscopy.
Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Antidepressants more effective in treating depression than placebo
A major study comparing 21 commonly used antidepressants concludes that all are more effective than placebo for the short-term treatment of acute depression in adults, with effectiveness ranging from small to moderate for different drugs. The international study, published in The Lancet , is a network meta-analysis of 522 double-blind, randomised controlled trials comprising a total of 116477 participants.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Low-calorie Diet Enhances Intestinal Regeneration After Injury
Low-calorie Diet Enhances Intestinal Regeneration After Injury
Dramatic calorie restriction, diets reduced by 40 percent of a normal calorie total, have long been known to extend health span, the duration of disease-free aging, in animal studies, and even to extend life span in most animal species examined. Further research has shown that animals fed restricted-calorie diets are also better able to regenerate numerous tissues after injury.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
22.02.2018
Human malaria parasites grown for the first time in dormant form
Human malaria parasites grown for the first time in dormant form
One of the biggest obstacles to eradicating malaria is a dormant form of the parasite that lurks in the livers of some patients. This dormant form is resistant to most antimalarial drugs and can reawaken months or years later, causing disease relapse. Malaria researchers know little about the biology of these dormant parasites, so it has been difficult to develop drugs that target them.
Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Stretchable health sensor could improve monitoring of chronic conditions
A new type of flexible, wearable sensor could help people with chronic conditions like diabetes avoid the discomfort of regular pin-prick blood tests by monitoring the chemical composition of their sweat instead. In a new paper published in the journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics, a team of scientists from the University of Glasgow's School of Engineering outline how they have built a stretchable, wireless system which is capable of measuring the pH level of users' sweat.
Life Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
22.02.2018
Imaging Flexible DNA 'Building Blocks' in 3-D
Imaging Flexible DNA ’Building Blocks’ in 3-D
By Laurie Chong Over the past decade, researchers have been working to create nanoscale materials and devices using DNA as construction materials through a process called "DNA origami." A single long "scaffold" strand of DNA can be folded into specific shapes by hundreds of shorter strands, for example.
Life Sciences - History/Archeology
22.02.2018
Beaker culture in Britain came about through large-scale migration
Beaker culture in Britain came about through large-scale migration
Beaker pottery and culture spread through large-scale migration of people and through the exchange of new ideas, according to new research by an international team involving UCL scientists. The study involved analysis of ancient-DNA data from 400 prehistoric skeletons drawn from sites across Europe. It is the largest study of ancient human DNA ever conducted.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
22.02.2018
Genetic roots of opioid addiction in European Americans uncovered
A genome-wide analysis of more than 5,000 opioid users has revealed a gene variant associated with opioid dependence in European-Americans. The new study builds upon earlier work by Yale researchers who identified a different group of variants associated with increased risk of opioid addiction in African Americans.
Physics/Materials Science - Civil Engineering/Traffic Engineering
22.02.2018
Urban heat island effects depend on a city’s layout
The arrangement of a city's streets and buildings plays a crucial role in the local urban heat island effect, which causes cities to be hotter than their surroundings, researchers have found. The new finding could provide city planners and officials with new ways to influence those effects. Some cities, such as New York and Chicago, are laid out on a precise grid, like the atoms in a crystal, while others such as Boston or London are arranged more chaotically, like the disordered atoms in a liquid or glass.
Life Sciences
22.02.2018
Unsaddling old theory on origin of horses
Unsaddling old theory on origin of horses
Botai horses were tamed in Kazakhstan 5,500 years ago and thought to be the ancestors of today's domesticated horses. . . until a team led by researchers from the CNRS and Université Toulouse III–Paul Sabatier sequenced their genome. Their findings published on 22 February 2018 in Science are startling: these equids are the progenitors not of the modern domesticated horse, but rather of Przewalski's horses—previously presumed wild! The earliest proof of equine domestication points to the steppes of Central Asia roughly 5,500 years ago.
Life Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
21.02.2018
New Interaction Mechanism of Proteins Discovered
New Interaction Mechanism of Proteins Discovered
Proteins are among the most important biomolecules and are the key mediators of molecular communication between and within cells. For two proteins to be able to bind, specific regions of their three-dimensional structure have to exactly match one another - like a key that fits into a lock. The structure of proteins is extremely important for their functioning and for triggering the required response in cells.
Medicine/Pharmacology
21.02.2018
Stroke survivors and caregivers feel abandoned by health services, study finds
A systematic review of studies focused on stroke survivors' and carers' experiences of primary care and community healthcare services has found that they feel abandoned because they have become marginalised by services and do not have the knowledge or skills to re-engage.
Physics/Materials Science - Medicine/Pharmacology
21.02.2018
Physical and mental multitasking may boost memory, study suggests
Physical and mental multitasking may boost memory, study suggests
FINDINGS Performing memory training exercises at the same time as pedaling a stationary bike led to better gains in memory than doing the training exercises after working up a sweat, according to a 55-person study led by UCLA researchers. The findings suggest that exercise may temporarily make it easier for the brain to create new memories.
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