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Health - Chemistry - 15.12.2009
Oldest case of leprosy found in 1st century tomb
Analysis of human remains buried in the 1st century 'Tomb of the Shroud? in Jerusalem has revealed evidence of ancient leprosy and tuberculosis. The new research, involving UCL researchers, is published in the journal PLoS One today. This is the first time that a 1st century tomb from Jerusalem has been investigated by molecular methods.

Chemistry - Health - 10.12.2009
Newly discovered mechanism by which blood clots form
Newly discovered mechanism by which blood clots form
Polyphosphate from blood platelets plays a key role in inflammation and the formation of blood clots, scientists from Karolinska Institutet have shown. The study, which is presented in the prestigious scientific journal Cell, describes how this mechanism can be used in treatment. Blood clots are a common cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, and they arise when blood coagulates and clogs a blood vessel.

Health - Chemistry - 20.11.2009
Largest mass extinction linked to 21st century lung cancer epidemic
The geologic conditions that very nearly annihilated life 250 million years ago are still killing people today. Parts of Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province in China have the world" s highest known death rates from lung cancer in non-smoking women. For thirty years the region, which uses locally mined coal for domestic cooking and heating, has been the focus of intense scientific research to establish a cause.

Physics - Chemistry - 15.11.2009
New funding will stimulate alternative energy research: Los Alamos to play key role in four geothermal projects funded by ARRA
Schoolchildren at the Pueblo of Jemez get hands-on learning at a geothermal well during a recent Earth Day event. The well may be used for power or warmth. Los Alamos National Laboratory is providing technical assistance in the project thanks to funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.11.2009
Scientists decipher the formation of lasting memories
Scientists decipher the formation of lasting memories
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered a mechanism that controls the brain's ability to create lasting memories. In experiments on genetically manipulated mice, they were able to switch on and off the animals' ability to form lasting memories by adding a substance to their drinking water.

Physics - Chemistry - 04.11.2009
Quantum Gas Microscope Offers Glimpse of Quirky Ultracold Atoms
Cambridge, Mass. November 4, 2009 - Physicists at Harvard University have created a quantum gas microscope that can be used to observe single atoms at temperatures so low the particles follow the rules of quantum mechanics, behaving in bizarre ways. The work, published this week in the journal Nature, represents the first time scientists have detected single atoms in a crystalline structure made solely of light, called a Bose Hubbard optical lattice.

Physics - Chemistry - 29.10.2009
Multibillion-atom molecular dynamics simulations of how extreme shock waves break materials into pieces
Advances in experimental techniques and supercomputer performance, culminating with Roadrunner, have reduced the gap between experiment and simulation Los Alamos, New Mexico, October 30, 2009—The long-established and reliable SPaSM (Scalable Parallel Short-range Molecular dynamics) code, adapted to run on the world's fastest supercomputer, Roadrunner, is being used to study the physics of how materials break up, called "spall," and how pieces fly off, called "ejecta," from thin sheets of copper as shock waves force the material break apart at the atomic scale.

Health - Chemistry - 23.10.2009
One Shot of Gene Therapy and Children with Congenital Blindness Can Now See
PHILADELPHIA Born with a retinal disease that made him legally blind, and would eventually leave him totally sightless, the nine-year-old boy used to sit in the back of the classroom, relying on the large print on an electronic screen and assisted by teacher aides. Now, after a single injection of genes that produce light-sensitive pigments in the back of his eye, he sits in front with classmates and participates in class without extra help.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.10.2009
Scientists give insight into movement of molecules
Scientists at the University of Sheffield have made an exciting breakthrough in the control of the movement of single molecules. The findings represent a significant step forward in the field of molecular nanotechnology, which requires such control to achieve self-assembling nano-machines. This could potentially lead to the development of a method to send artificial drugs to their targets, or the creation of self-healing structures which could naturally repair tears in a surface.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.10.2009
Shortest flashes from ultra-hot matter
High-energy heavy ion collisions, which are studied at RHIC in Brookhaven and soon at the LHC in Geneva, can be a source of light flashes of a few yoctoseconds duration (a septillionth of a second, 10-24 s, ys) - the time that light needs to traverse an atomic nucleus. This is shown in calculations of the light emission of so-called quark-gluon plasmas, which are created in such collisions for extremely short periods of time.

Chemistry - Physics - 28.09.2009
Licence to go where no chemist has gone before
PA 253/09 Scientists at The University of Nottingham have overcome one of the significant research challenges facing electrochemists. For the first time they have found a way of probing right into the heart of an electrochemical reaction. Their breakthrough will help scientists understand how catalysts work.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 16.09.2009
Photoswitches shed light on burst swimming in zebrafish
BERKELEY — A new way to select and switch on one cell type in an organism using light has helped answer a long-standing question about the function of one class of enigmatic nerve cells in the spinal cord. Through targeted insertion of light-sensitive switches into these cells in awake zebrafish larvae, University of California, Berkeley, and UC San Francisco scientists have found that these mysterious cells trigger burst swimming the periodic tail twitching typical of larvae.

Health - Chemistry - 02.09.2009
Changes to DNA linked to diabetes
Genes that regulate the energy consumption of cells have a different structure and expression in type II diabetics than they do in healthy people, according to a new study from the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet published in Cell Metabolism. The researchers believe that these epigenetic modifications might have a key part to play in the development of the disease.

Chemistry - Physics - 31.08.2009
Hydrogen storage gets new hope
Hydrogen storage gets new hope
A new method for "recycling" hydrogen-containing fuel materials could open the door to economically viable hydrogen-based vehicles. Economical hydrogen-based vehicles could result from rechargeable 'chemical fuel tank' Ammonia borane (AB) is a potential hydrogen releasing fuel. In this Los Alamos National Laboratory graphic, the AB would be used on-board the vehicle to run a fuel cell.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 27.08.2009
Mice Living in Sandy Hills Quickly Evolved Lighter Coloration
Cambridge, Mass. August 27, 2009 - In a vivid illustration of natural selection at work, scientists at Harvard University have found that deer mice living in Nebraska's Sand Hills quickly evolved lighter coloration after glaciers deposited sand dunes atop what had been much darker soil. The work is described this week in the journal Science.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 21.08.2009
Diarrhea disorder Giardiasis caused by two different parasite species
Researchers from Uppsala University and the Karolinska Institutet have found major genetic differences between the human variants of the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis. Sequencing of the genomes using the latest technologies shows that people are infected by two different Giardia species, according to a study published in the journal PLOS Pathogens.

Chemistry - 22.07.2009
Saturn’s moon shows evidence of ammonia
Saturn's moon shows evidence of ammonia 22 July 2009 Data collected during two close flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus by Cassini add more fuel to the fire about the icy world containing sub-surface liquid water. The results, based on data collected by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and October 2008, will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal Nature.

Chemistry - Economics - 13.07.2009
Research Shows Glass Can Make Concrete Sturdier
Research Shows Glass Can Make Concrete Sturdier
July 14, 2009 — Coral Gables — Why Reinforcing Concrete Columns with Internal Bars Made of Glass Fibers Can Make a Building More Sturdy The University of Miami, through its NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Center RB2C performed the first-ever tests of full-scale concrete columns internally reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars.

Physics - Chemistry - 24.06.2009
Cassini finding hints at ocean within Saturn’s moon Enceladus
Cassini finding hints at ocean within Saturn's moon Enceladus 24 June 2009 European scientists on the joint NASA/ESA Cassini mission have detected, for the first time, sodium salts in ice grains of Saturn's E-ring, which is primarily replenished by material from the plumes of water vapour and ice grains emitted by Saturn's moon Enceladus.

Chemistry - Environment - 16.06.2009
Effects of plastic on the environment revealed
A University of Plymouth lecturer is the lead author of a prestigious new Royal Society publication examining the effects of plastics on the environment and human health. Richard Thompson, who is one of the foremost researchers on this topical subject, was chosen to edit the 180 page special issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B which is published online today pending hard copy publication towards the end of the summer.