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Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.12.2010
U of M researchers' discovery suggests a new way to prevent HIV from infecting human cells
Media Note: For a copy of the abstract and/or full article, contact Preston Smith or John Albin. MINNEAPOLIS / ST. PAUL (12/22/2010) —Researchers at the University of Minnesota have discovered how HIV binds to and destroys a specific human antiviral protein called APOBEC3F. The results suggest that a simple chemical change can convert APOBEC3F to a more effective antiviral agent and that shielding of a common feature shared by related proteins may yield a similar outcome.

Chemistry - 20.12.2010
Carbon nanotubes could be ideal optical antennae
Carbon nanotubes could be ideal optical antennae
Just as walkie-talkies transmit and receive radio waves, carbon nanotubes can transmit and receive light at the nanoscale, Cornell researchers have discovered. Carbon nanotubes, cylindrical rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms, might one day make ideal optical scattering wires - tiny, mostly invisible antennae with the ability to control, absorb and emit certain colors of light at the nanoscale, according to research led by Jiwoong Park, Cornell assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 20.12.2010
Despite damage, membrane protein structure can be seen using new X-ray technology, study reveals
Australian researchers have identified a way to measure the structure of membrane proteins despite being damaged when using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), a discovery that will help fast track the development of targeted drugs using emerging XFELs technology. About 70% of drugs on the market today depend on the activity of membrane proteins, which are complex molecules that form the membranes of the cells in our body.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 16.12.2010
The code for survival
When cells are exposed to life-threatening stresses, they take quick action to save themselves. Among other defenses, they start manufacturing proteins that perform critical tasks such as repairing DNA. Researchers at MIT and the University of Albany have now discovered one way that cells boost production of such proteins.

Health - Chemistry - 15.12.2010
Zebrafish ’window on cancer’ shows birth of tumour - and body’s response
Scientists using translucent zebrafish as a "window on cancer” have been able to see in real time how tumour cells are born – and immediately attract cells from the immune system. This inflammatory response seems to both attack and aid the cancer cells and the balance between the two provides a new therapeutic target for cancer researchers.

Health - Chemistry - 14.12.2010
Zebrafish provide new hope for cancer treatment
Zebrafish provide new hope for cancer treatment
The imaging of tumour growth in zebrafish has revealed for the first time how cancer cells have the capacity to co-opt the immune system into spreading disease, leading the way for investigations into potential therapies for eliminating early-stage cancer in humans. Using different coloured fluorescent tags, scientists at the University of Bristol labelled the white blood cells of the translucent zebrafish in order to track the growth of tumours with live images.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.12.2010
Scientists give insight into 200-year-old riddle
Scientists give insight into 200-year-old riddle
University of Manchester researchers have played a vital role in an international study that has revived the 200-year-old question: why do different species share similar stages of embryonic development? Dr Casey Bergman and Dr Dave Gerrard at Manchester's Faculty of Life Sciences collaborated on the project with Pavel Tomancak, at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, and Uwe Ohler, at Duke University, on a study funded by the Human Frontiers of Science Program published in Nature today.

Physics - Chemistry - 07.12.2010
New Observations of Exploding Stars Reveal Pauses, Flickers and Flares not Reliably Seen Before
Astronomers have traced the waxing and waning light of exploding stars more closely than ever before and seen patterns that aren't yet accounted for in our current understanding of how these eruptions occur. A team led by Bernard Jackson, a solar physicist at the Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences at the University of California, San Diego, developed the instrument that allowed the team to make such precise measurements.

Health - Chemistry - 06.12.2010
Potential role for vitamin B1 in preventing heart problems in people with diabetes
Potential role for vitamin B1 in preventing heart problems in people with diabetes
A dietary supplement of the synthetic derivative of vitamin B1 has the potential to prevent heart disease caused by diabetes, according to new research from the University of Bristol, funded by Diabetes UK. Vitamin B1 may help the body to dispose of toxins and therefore protect cells of the heart from becoming damaged.

Physics - Chemistry - 03.12.2010
New theory on the origin of water on Earth
A new theory on the source of terrestrial water has been validated by an international team led by Professor Nora de Leeuw (UCL Chemistry) using computational research. Below Professor de Leeuw describes the implications of the breakthrough. ?The origin of water on our planet is not only of interest for our understanding of the evolution of our own planet and life thereon, but even more so for the increasing exploration of other planets within our solar system and the discovery of potential planetary systems in other galaxies.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 01.12.2010
Novel approach to chronic pain relief
Novel approach to chronic pain relief
An international team of scientists have found what they believe could be a novel approach to more effective, targeted relief of chronic pain caused by nerve injuries. Previously, scientists have been able to show that a protein molecule known as PKM zeta is required to store memories. In the case of chronic pain, there is a malfunctioning in the neural process that stores those memories, which prevents the brain from adapting the subsequent behavioural response which would ordinarily allow it to cope with the pain.

Physics - Chemistry - 01.12.2010
NASA Aids in Characterizing Super-Earth Atmosphere
NASA Aids in Characterizing Super-Earth Atmosphere
PASADENA, Calif. A team of astronomers, including two NASA Sagan Fellows, has made the first characterizations of a super-Earth's atmosphere, by using a ground-based telescope. A super-Earth is a planet up to three times the size of Earth and weighing up to 10 times as much. The findings, reported in the Dec.

Physics - Chemistry - 01.12.2010
Super-Earth Has an Atmosphere, But Is It Steamy or Gassy?
Super-Earth Has an Atmosphere, But Is It Steamy or Gassy?
Cambridge, MA - In December 2009, astronomers announced the discovery of a super-Earth known as GJ 1214b. At the time, they reported signs that the newfound world likely had a thick, gaseous atmosphere. Now, a team led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) has made the first measurements of GJ 1214b's atmosphere.

Environment - Chemistry - 30.11.2010
Formic acid in the engine
Formic acid in the engine
Do ants hold the key to the fuel of the future? Formic acid provides more efficient and safer storage of hydrogen.

Chemistry - Economics - 29.11.2010
Breakthrough in the search for high quality fuels from inexpensive biomass
PA 331/10 Chemical engineering experts at The University of Nottingham have helped a team of international researchers find a way of producing inexpensive renewable liquid fuel out of low grade oils made from renewable products such as farm waste and wood chips. The process, using a unique integrated catalytic process, could open the door to a chemical industry based on renewable biomass feedstock.

Physics - Chemistry - 29.11.2010
Thin Air - Cassini Finds Ethereal Atmosphere at Rhea
Thin Air - Cassini Finds Ethereal Atmosphere at Rhea
NASA's Cassini spacecraft has detected a very tenuous atmosphere known as an exosphere, infused with oxygen and carbon dioxide around Saturn's icy moon Rhea. This is the first time a spacecraft has directly captured molecules of an oxygen atmosphere - albeit a very thin one - at a world other than Earth.

Physics - Chemistry - 29.11.2010
The secrets of graphene
A team of physicists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) has measured a giant optical phenomenon in graphene. This material, the discovery of which was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics, consists of a single layer of carbon atoms. Its exceptional properties are at the heart of global research in disciplines as diverse as engineering, biology and chemistry, with great potential for future applications.

Physics - Chemistry - 26.11.2010
Cassini reveals oxygen atmosphere of Saturn's moon Rhea
Cassini reveals oxygen atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Rhea
A fragile atmosphere infused with oxygen and carbon-dioxide has been discovered at Saturn's moon Rhea by the Cassini-Huygens mission - the first time a spacecraft has captured direct evidence of an oxygen atmosphere at a world other than Earth. The NASA-led international mission made the discovery using combined data from Cassini's instruments, which includes a sensor designed and built at UCL's (University College London) Mullard Space Science Laboratory.

Chemistry - Physics - 23.11.2010
World first to provide building blocks for new nano devices
PA 322/10 Scientists at The University of Nottingham have made a major breakthrough that could help shape the future of nanotechnology, by demonstrating for the first time that 3-D molecular structures can be built on a surface. The discovery could prove a significant step forward towards the development of new nano devices such as cutting-edge optical and electronic technologies and even molecular computers.

Physics - Chemistry - 16.11.2010
Scientists step closer to understanding secrets of anti-matter
Scientists step closer to understanding secrets of anti-matter
Liverpool, UK - 17 November 2010: Physicists at the Universities of Liverpool and Swansea have succeeded in trapping atoms of antihydrogen to help further understanding of the origins of the Universe. Researchers have trapped and held the atoms, the anti-matter counterpart of hydrogen, using an experiment called ALPHA at CERN in Switzerland.
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