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Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.12.2012
Fat influences decisions taken by brain cells for production and survival
Fat influences decisions taken by brain cells for production and survival
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified two molecules that play an important role in the survival and production of nerve cells in the brain, including nerve cells that produce dopamine. The discovery, which is published Chemical Biology, may be significant in the long term for the treatment of several diseases, such as Parkinson's disease.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.12.2012
Prehistoric ghosts revealing new details
Prehistoric ghosts revealing new details
18 Dec 2012 Their work on a 50 million year old lizard skin identified the presence of teeth (invisible to visible light), demonstrating for the first time that this fossil animal was more than just a skin moult. This was only possible using some of the brightest light in the universe, x-rays generated by a synchrotron.

Chemistry - Earth Sciences - 17.12.2012
Within the Earth, blobs of molten iron on the move
New research by Yale University scientists suggests an explanation for the amount of iron in the Earth's largest interior layer, the mantle: migrating "iron-rich blobs" generated by chemical interactions in the zone between the planet's core and mantle. Scientists have long known of the core's rich iron content, but they have struggled to explain how the rocky mantle acquires iron in any abundance.

History / Archeology - Chemistry - 12.12.2012
Chemical analysis of sieve vessels reveals first cheese making in Northern Europe in the 6th millennium BC
Chemical analysis of sieve vessels reveals first cheese making in Northern Europe in the 6th millennium BC
The first unequivocal evidence that humans in prehistoric Northern Europe made cheese more than 7,000 years ago is described in research by an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, published today in Nature. By analysing fatty acids extracted from unglazed pottery pierced with small holes excavated from archaeological sites in Poland, the researchers showed that dairy products were processed in these ceramic vessels.

Astronomy / Space Science - Chemistry - 12.12.2012
Galaxies Near Cosmic Dawn
The colored squares in the main image outline the locations of the newly discovered galaxies. Enlarged views of each galaxy are shown in the black-and-white images. Each galaxy is labeled with the redshift (z), which measures how much a galaxy's light has been stretched by the universe's expansion. The galaxy observed at a redshift of 11.9 may be the distance-record breaker, seen as it appeared 380 million years after the Big Bang.

Physics - Chemistry - 12.12.2012
Ultra-short laser pulses control chemical processes
How can molecules be split in a controlled manner? A new experiment at the TU Vienna shows how research into ultra-short laser pulses can be combined with chemistry. Chemical reactions occur so quickly that it is completely impossible to observe their progress or to control them using conventional methods.

Physics - Chemistry - 11.12.2012
Alternative to fullerenes in organic solar cells - just as exciting
An insight into the properties of fullerene is set to open the door to a new class of electronic acceptors which can be used to build better and cheaper organic solar cells. Organic solar cells have advanced a great deal since they were first invented nearly 20 years ago, but the fullerene component has remained largely the same and this has had a braking effect on the evolution of the technology.

Chemistry - Earth Sciences - 10.12.2012
Mining ancient ores for clues to early life
An analysis of sulfide ore deposits from one of the world's richest base-metal mines confirms that oxygen levels were extremely low on Earth 2.7 billion years ago, but also shows that microbes were actively feeding on sulfate in the ocean and influencing seawater chemistry during that geological time period.

Health - Chemistry - 10.12.2012
UCLA cancer scientists identify liposarcoma tumors that respond to chemotherapy
Liposarcoma, the most common type of sarcoma, is an often lethal form of cancer that develops in fat cells. It is particularly deadly, in part, because the tumors are not consistently visible with positron emission tomography (PET) scans that use a common probe called FDG and because they frequently do not respond to chemotherapy.

Chemistry - 06.12.2012
Attitudes to organic labels depend on consumers' values
Attitudes to organic labels depend on consumers’ values
Labeling food as "organic" may not always lead to a positive impression, according to a recent Cornell study. The research, published Nov. 27 online in the journal Appetite, flips the notion of a "halo" effect for ethical food labels. A halo effect refers to a phenomenon where a label leads consumers to have a positive opinion - and in the case of an organic label, a healthful impression - of those foods.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.12.2012
Seeing in Color at the Nanoscale
Seeing in Color at the Nanoscale
If nanoscience were television, we'd be in the 1950s. Although scientists can make and manipulate nanoscale objects with increasingly awesome control, they are limited to black-and-white imagery for examining those objects. Information about nanoscale chemistry and interactions with light-the atomic-microscopy equivalent to color-is tantalizingly out of reach to all but the most persistent researchers.

Environment - Chemistry - 04.12.2012
More Potent than Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide Levels in California May be Nearly Three Times Higher Than Previously Thought
More Potent than Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide Levels in California May be Nearly Three Times Higher Than Previously Thought
Using a new method for estimating greenhouse gases that combines atmospheric measurements with model predictions, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) researchers have found that the level of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, in California may be 2.5 to 3 times greater than the current inventory.

Physics - Chemistry - 03.12.2012
Experiments bolster theory of how electrons cool in graphene
Experiments bolster theory of how electrons cool in graphene
It's a basic tenet of physics that scientists are trying to explain in graphene, single-atom thick sheets of carbon: When electrons are excited, or heated, how quickly do they relax, or cool? A research team supported by the Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science has shed some light on the topic through the first known direct measurements of hot electrons cooling down in graphene.

Health - Chemistry - 03.12.2012
BPA exposure in fetal livers
BPA exposure in fetal livers
ANN ARBOR-New research from the University of Michigan School of Public Health found BPA, or bisphenol A, in fetal liver tissue, demonstrating that there is considerable exposure to the chemical during pregnancy. Researchers also found a proportionately higher concentration of free BPA-as opposed to the conjugated forms modified by the body for elimination-further showing that in fetuses the ability to eliminate the chemical from the body is not the same as in adults.

Astronomy / Space Science - Chemistry - 29.11.2012
Evidence for water ice deposits and organic material on Mercury
Evidence for water ice deposits and organic material on Mercury
Using data collected by NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft, a team from UCLA crafted the first accurate thermal model of the solar system's innermost planet, successfully pinpointing the extremely cold regions where ice has been found on or below the surface. The researchers say the newly discovered black deposits are a thin crust of residual organic material brought to the planet over the past several million years through impacts by water-rich asteroids and comets.

Chemistry - 27.11.2012
Route to a 'long-life' mobile fuel cell
Route to a 'long-life' mobile fuel cell
A new catalyst developed by a team led by Oxford University scientists could be the key to creating small, long-lasting fuel cells for powering mobile devices. The catalyst can directly convert methanol into hydrogen at the relatively low temperature of 150 degrees Celsius and, crucially, generates no detectable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) - a poison that damages fuel cells and gives them a short lifespan.

Health - Chemistry - 27.11.2012
Enzyme explains angina in diabetics
In a new study published in the scientific journal Circulation, scientists at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital show that an enzyme called arginase might have a key part to play in the development of cardiovascular disease in patients who already have type II diabetes. According to the team, arginase prevents the formation of protective nitrogen oxide in the blood vessels, and treatments that inhibit this enzyme reduce the risk of angina in diabetics.

Electroengineering - Chemistry - 26.11.2012
Researchers Make Flexible, Low-voltage Circuits Using Nanocrystals
Researchers Make Flexible, Low-voltage Circuits Using Nanocrystals
Electronic circuits are typically integrated in rigid silicon wafers, but flexibility opens up a wide range of applications. In a world where electronics are becoming more pervasive, flexibility is a highly desirable trait, but finding materials with the right mix of performance and manufacturing cost remains a challenge.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 22.11.2012
Key pathological mechanism found in plague bacterium
from Umeň University A more than 50-year-old question has now been answered. Chemists and microbiologists at the Biological Chemistry Center at Umeň University in Sweden are now able to describe in detail the role of calcium in the ability of the plague bacterium Yersinias to cause disease. In the 14th century, the Black Death claimed the lives of one third of the population of Europe.

Physics - Chemistry - 22.11.2012
A Magic Formula to Predict Fracture in Steel
A Magic Formula to Predict Fracture in Steel
Researchers have elucidated a century-old mystery: how hydrogen destroys steels. A new mathematical model predicts this failure in the presence of the destructive atoms. A veritable gangrene for steels and other structural metals, hydrogen is one of the most important causes of ruptures in industrial parts, such as pipelines.
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