news 2013



Results 41 - 60 of 206.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 30.09.2013
Structure of chromosomes revealed
It took several years to develop all the computational tools to make this happen, but the structures we can now reconstruct from this high-quality data are quite striking. More importantly, this new approach is allowing us to study the variation in chromosome structure on a cell-by-cell basis. Tim Stevens Scientists have developed a novel approach to determine the 3D structures of chromosomes in single cells, using hundreds of measurements of where different parts of the DNA get close to one another.

Astronomy / Space Science - Chemistry - 27.09.2013
Chronobiology: Not everything revolves around the sun
Researchers in Vienna shed light on the interplay of a worm's inner clocks For a long time, molecular chronobiology has almost exclusively focused on circadian rhythms that are driven by the changes of day and night and hence follow the daily cycle of the sun. However, especially in the sea, the cradle of evolution, organisms set their pace also according to the moon.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 26.09.2013
Oldest existing lizard-like fossil hints at scaly origins
Oldest existing lizard-like fossil hints at scaly origins
The fossilised remains of a reptile closely related to lizards are the oldest yet to be discovered. Two new fossil jaws discovered in Vellberg, Germany provide the first direct evidence that the ancestors of lizards, snakes and tuatara (known collectively as lepidosaurs), were alive during the Middle Triassic period - around 240 million years ago.

Astronomy / Space Science - Chemistry - 25.09.2013
Observations reveal critical interplay of interstellar dust, hydrogen
Intense molecular hydrogen formation shown in near infrared image of the reflection nebula IC 63 in the constellation Cassiopeia. The white bars represent polarization seen toward stars in the background of the nebula. The largest polarization shows the most intense emission, demonstrating that hydrogen formation influences alignment of the dust grain with a magnetic field.  For astrophysicists, the interplay of hydrogen - the most common molecule in the universe - and the vast clouds of dust that fill the voids of interstellar space has been an intractable puzzle of stellar evolution.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.09.2013
Siberian hamsters show what helps make seasonal clocks tick
Many animals, including humans, have internal clocks and calendars to help them regulate behavior, physiological functions and biological processes. Although scientists have extensively studied the timekeeping mechanisms that inform daily functions (circadian rhythms), they know very little about the timekeeping mechanisms that inform seasonal functions.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.09.2013
New Gut Bacterium Discovered in Termite's Digestion of Wood
New Gut Bacterium Discovered in Termite’s Digestion of Wood
When termites munch on wood, the small bits are delivered to feed a community of unique microbes living in their guts, and in a complex process involving multiple steps, these microbes turn the hard, fibrous material into a nutritious meal for the termite host. One key step uses hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into organic carbon-a process called acetogenesis-but little is known about which gut bacteria play specific roles in the process.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 23.09.2013
It takes a(n academic) village to determine enzyme’s function
Chemistry professor Jonathan Sweedler, left, microbiology professor John Cronan, biochemistry professor John Gerlt and their colleagues developed a streamlined approach to discovering enzyme function. CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Scientists have sequenced the genomes of nearly 6,900 organisms, but they know the functions of only about half of the protein-coding genes thus far discovered.

Chemistry - Electroengineering - 20.09.2013
Water-shedding surfaces can be made to last
Water-shedding surfaces can be made to last
Steam condensation is key to the worldwide production of electricity and clean water: It is part of the power cycle that drives 85 percent of all electricity-generating plants and about half of all desalination plants globally, according to the United Nations and International Energy Agency. So anything that improves the efficiency of this process could have enormous impact on global energy use.

Chemistry - Physics - 18.09.2013
Treated fibers clean dye-polluted waters
Treated fibers clean dye-polluted waters
A cheap and simple process using natural fibers embedded with nanoparticles can almost completely rid water of harmful textile dyes in minutes, report Cornell and Colombian researchers who worked with native Colombian plant fibers. Dyes, such as indigo blue used to color blue jeans, threaten waterways near textile plants in South America, India and China.

Chemistry - Physics - 18.09.2013
In Water as In Love, Likes Can Attract
In Water as In Love, Likes Can Attract
At some point in elementary school you were shown that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. This is a universal scientific truth - except when it isn't. A research team led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, working at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), has shown that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another.

Health - Chemistry - 17.09.2013
New class of drug targets heart disease
New class of drug targets heart disease
UAlberta researchers create drug that replaces key peptide linked with heart failure, diabetes and high blood pressure. Researchers at the University of Alberta have developed a synthetic peptide that could be the first in a new class of drugs to treat heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes.

Chemistry - Health - 17.09.2013
’Sticky tape’ for water droplets mimics rose petal
17 September 2013 A new nanostructured material with applications that could include reducing condensation in airplane cabins and enabling certain medical tests without the need for high tech laboratories has been developed by researchers at the University of Sydney.

Chemistry - Physics - 17.09.2013
New materials improve oxygen catalysis
New materials improve oxygen catalysis
MIT researchers have found a new family of materials that provides the best-ever performance in a reaction called oxygen evolution, a key requirement for energy storage and delivery systems such as advanced fuel cells and lithium-air batteries. The materials, called double perovskites, are a variant of a mineral that exists in abundance in the Earth's crust.

Chemistry - Administration - 12.09.2013
Scientists open up lab notebooks with Figshare
Scientists open up lab notebooks with Figshare
A new free-to-access 'swap-shop', where scientists deposit and exchange data could reduce the cost of research and deliver a raft of new discoveries. The architects of such a service, say it could bring about new advances faster in all fields of science, medicine and engineering by bringing together results from different sources.

Health - Chemistry - 11.09.2013
Astex Pharmaceuticals acquired by Otsuka
University of Cambridge spin-out Astex Pharmaceuticals is to be acquired by Japanese company in order to accelerate the development of new cancer treatments. This approach has led to a significant change in how the pharmaceutical industry approaches drug discovery Chris Abell The drug discovery company, Astex Pharmaceuticals, has been acquired by the Japanese firm Otsuka Pharmaceutical, in a move which promises to significantly enhance its capacity to develop new therapeutics for cancer.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.09.2013
Unique snapshot of an enzyme in action
Unique snapshot of an enzyme in action
Göttingen scientists unravel fundamental mechanisms of biochemical reactions (pug) Enzymes are the molecular catalysts of life performing vital metabolic functions in every cell. To date, it has been speculated that enzymes literally bend and break their substrates during biochemical reactions. For the first time, scientists at the Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences (GZMB) succeeded in experimentally confirming this hypothesis with certainty.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 09.09.2013
How to map cell-signaling molecules to their targets
A team of University of Montreal and McGill University researchers have devised a method to identify how signaling molecules orchestrate the sequential steps in cell division. In an article published online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the scientists explain how they could track the relationship between signaling molecules and their target molecules to establish where, when and how the targets are deployed to perform the many steps necessary to replicate an individual cell's genome and surrounding structures.

Health - Chemistry - 05.09.2013
Key to what's in our pee
Key to what’s in our pee
UAlberta research shows 3,000 chemicals can be detected in human urine—results that could lead to fast, painless medical tests. Researchers at the University of Alberta have determined the chemical composition of human urine—and the results reveal a remarkable complexity in a seemingly simple substance.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 04.09.2013
Pico-world dragnets: Computer-designed proteins recognize and bind with small molecules
Posted under: Engineering , Environment , Health and Medicine , News Releases , Research , Science , Technology Computer-designed proteins that can recognize and interact with small biological molecules are now a reality. Scientists have succeeded in creating a protein molecule that can be programmed to unite with three different steroids.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 04.09.2013
New low-temperature chemical reaction explained
Paper: "New Pathways for Formation of Acids and Carbonyl Products in Low-Temperature Oxidation: The Korcek Decomposition of ?-Ketohydroperoxides" Unusual reaction, never fully understood, is important to fuel combustion, atmospheric chemistry and biochemistry. In all the centuries that humans have studied chemical reactions, just 36 basic types of reactions have been found.