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Health - Life Sciences - 02.12.2013
Penn Medicine: Brain Connectivity Study Reveals Striking Differences Between Men and Women
Penn Medicine: Brain Connectivity Study Reveals Striking Differences Between Men and Women
A new brain connectivity study from Penn Medicine published today in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences found striking differences in the neural wiring of men and women that's lending credence to some commonly-held beliefs about their behavior.

Life Sciences - 02.12.2013
A single spray of oxytocin improves brain function in children with autism
A single spray of oxytocin improves brain function in children with autism
A single dose of the hormone oxytocin, delivered via nasal spray, has been shown to enhance brain activity while processing social information in children with autism spectrum disorders, Yale School of Medicine researchers report in a new study published in the Dec. 2 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.12.2013
New evidence that 'gout' strongly runs in the family
It's historically known as 'the king of diseases and the disease of kings' and was long thought to be caused by an overindulgent lifestyle, but now scientists at The University of Nottingham have confirmed that 'gout' strongly runs in families. Researchers in the Division of Rheumatology, Orthopaedics and Dermatology studied the whole population of Taiwan (23 million) where gout is most prevalent in the world.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 02.12.2013
Detailed image shows how genomes are copied
For the first time, researchers at Umeå University have succeeded in showing how the DNA polymerase epsilon enzyme builds new genomes. The detailed image produced by these researchers shows how mutations that can contribute to the development of colorectal cancer and cervical cancer lead to changes in the structure of the protein.

Life Sciences - Health - 02.12.2013
Difficult dance steps: Team learns how membrane transporter moves
Postdoctoral researcher Mahmoud Moradi, left, and biochemistry professor Emad Tajkhorshid discovered how a transporter protein changes its shape to shuttle other molecules across the cell membrane. CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Researchers have tried for decades to understand the undulations and gyrations that allow transport proteins to shuttle molecules from one side of a cell membrane to the other.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.12.2013
Natural killer cells may be key players in asthma
Natural killer cells may be key players in asthma
Agents of the immune system called natural killer (NK) cells may have an important role in asthma, according to research. NK cells are best known for eliminating cancer cells and cells infected by viruses, but the new study suggests that they might be partly to blame for inflammation in the airways in asthma.

Life Sciences - 30.11.2013
Research into bacteria could lead to improved fertilisers
Research into bacteria could lead to improved fertilisers
New research suggests that it should be possible to influence how bacteria manage nitrogen, in order to create better fertilisers for crops. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient, but most plants cannot process it from the air. They depend on bacteria in the soil to provide them with nitrogen in a usable form.

Health - Life Sciences - 28.11.2013
Malaria vaccine offers new mode of protection against disease
Malaria vaccine offers new mode of protection against disease
A novel malaria vaccine developed at Oxford University has shown promising results in the first clinical trial to test whether it can protect people against the mosquito-borne disease. The trial was carried out in Oxford by researchers led by Professor Adrian Hill of the Jenner Institute at Oxford University, along with colleagues from the biotechnology company Okairos.

Health - Life Sciences - 28.11.2013
Windswept midges brought Schmallenberg to UK
The Schmallenberg virus that causes birth defects in sheep and cattle was carried to the UK by midges blown over from French and Belgian farms, say Oxford University scientists. Schmallenberg was first seen in Germany in 2011 and spread rapidly across Europe through Culicoides midges, the same insects that carry the bluetongue virus.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.11.2013
Protein released from cells triggers chain reactions that could cause Alzheimer’s disease
Researchers have shown that a single monomer of the protein tau can be enough to kick-start an aggregation process which may explain the onset of Alzheimer's in the brain. It is one piece in the puzzle that could provide us with an explanation as to why head injuries may be connected to Alzheimer's. It's not necessarily correct - but it is plausible.

Life Sciences - Administration - 27.11.2013
Scientists identify protein responsible for controlling communication between brain cells
Scientists are a step closer to understanding how some of the brain's 100 billion nerve cells co-ordinate their communication. The study is published in the journal Cell Reports. The University of Bristol research team investigated some of the chemical processes that underpin how brain cells co-ordinate their communication.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.11.2013
A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found
A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found
UK researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and when faulty can cause excessive drinking. They have also identified the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol.

Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found
A gene mutation for excessive alcohol drinking found Sussex researchers are among a team of UK scientists who have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and, when faulty, can cause excessive drinking. They have also identified the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. The study showed that normal mice show no interest in alcohol and drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.11.2013
Gene mutation can cause excessive alcohol drinking
Gene mutation can cause excessive alcohol drinking
UK researchers have discovered a gene that regulates alcohol consumption and, when faulty, can cause excessive drinking in mice. The study found that normal mice drink little or no alcohol when offered a free choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of diluted alcohol. However, mice with a mutation in the gene Gabrb1 overwhelmingly preferred drinking alcohol over water, choosing to consume almost 85 per cent of their daily fluid as drinks containing alcohol.

Agronomy / Food Science - Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
A brain reward gene influences food choices
Research has suggested that a particular gene in the brain's reward system contributes to overeating and obesity in adults. This same variant has now been linked to childhood obesity and tasty food choices, particularly for girls, according to a new study by Dr. Patricia Silveira and Prof. Michael Meaney of McGill University and Dr. Robert Levitan of the University of Toronto.

Health - Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
British scientists to trial potential HIV cure
British scientists to trial potential HIV cure
Scientists and clinicians from five leading UK universities will begin a groundbreaking trial next year to test a possible cure for HIV infection. Efforts to cure HIV in the past have been thwarted by the virus's ability to lie dormant inside blood cells without being detected. The new therapy combines standard antiretroviral drugs with two new weapons: a drug that reactivates dormant HIV, and a vaccine that induces the immune system to destroy the infected cells.

Physics - Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
Better elephant stimulation needed to get good sperm
Better elephant stimulation needed to get good sperm
Crushed by habitat loss and poaching, Asian elephants are at risk, and their future rests heavily on captive breeding programs. A collaborative study between Cornell and Smithsonian scientists has found a key clue to why these programs have been difficult to manage. Published in the journal PLOS-ONE in August, their findings could transform how sperm is collected to preserve this endangered species.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.11.2013
Important clue to how the circulatory system is wired
A new mechanism that regulates the way blood vessels grow and connect to each other has been discovered by an international team of researchers at Karolinska Institutet, and Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany. The knowledge might open up new opportunities for future cancer therapy. The study is published in the scientific journal PNAS.

Health - Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
Sleeping sickness parasite’s pores act as efficient drug uptake mechanism
Scientists have discovered how drugs that have been used for 60 years to kill the parasite that causes sleeping sickness actually work. Research has revealed that the drugs used to attack Trypanosoma brucei enter through pores in the parasite's cells known as aquaporins which function as water channels.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.11.2013
Arctic Plays Outsized Role in Nitrogen Cycle
Arctic Plays Outsized Role in Nitrogen Cycle
PORT ARANSAS, Texas - Areas of the Arctic play a larger role than previously thought in the global nitrogen cycle'the process responsible for keeping a critical element necessary for life flowing between the atmosphere, the land and oceans. The finding is reported in a new study of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean published Wednesday in the journal Nature .