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Health - Life Sciences - 20.02.2013
Human cognition depends upon slow-firing neurons, Yale researchers find
Human cognition depends upon slow-firing neurons, Yale researchers find
Good mental health and clear thinking depend upon our ability to store and manipulate thoughts on a sort of "mental sketch pad." In a new study, Yale School of Medicine researchers describe the molecular basis of this ability - the hallmark of human cognition - and describe how a breakdown of the system contributes to diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.02.2013
Molecular basis found for tissue specific immune regulation in eye and kidney
Molecular basis found for tissue specific immune regulation in eye and kidney
Both AMD, which affects around 50 million people worldwide, and aHUS, a rare kidney disease that affects children, are associated with incorrectly controlled immune systems. A protein called complement factor H (CFH) is responsible for regulating part of our immune system called the complement cascade.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.02.2013
Hypnosis study unlocks secrets of unexplained paralysis
Hypnosis has begun to attract renewed interest from neuroscientists interested in using hypnotic suggestion to test predictions about normal cognitive functioning. To demonstrate the future potential of this growing field, guest editors Peter Halligan from the School of Psychology at Cardiff University and David A. Oakley of University College London, brought together leading researchers from cognitive neuroscience and hypnosis to contribute to this month's special issue of the international journal, Cortex.

Life Sciences - 20.02.2013
The effective collective
The effective collective
For social animals such as schooling fish, the loss of their numbers to human activity could eventually threaten entire populations, according to new research which found that such animals rely heavily on grouping to effectively navigate their environment. Collective intelligence is vital to certain animals' ability to evaluate and respond to their environment according to the study, which was led by researchers from Princeton University and co-authored by Christos Ioannou, now at the University of Bristol.

Life Sciences - Physics - 20.02.2013
First signals from brain nerve cells with ultrathin nanowires
Electrodes operated into the brain are today used in research and to treat diseases such as Parkinson’s. However, their use has been limited by their size. At Lund University in Sweden, researchers have, for the first time, succeeded in implanting an ultrathin nanowire-based electrode and capturing signals from the nerve cells in the brain of a laboratory animal.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
Carnegie Mellon Researchers Identify Biological Marker That Predicts Susceptibility to the Common Cold
: Shilo Rea / 412-268-6094 / shilo [a] cmu (p) edu PITTSBURGH-Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have identified a biological marker in the immune system that - beginning at about age 22 - predicts our ability to fight off the common cold. Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and led by Carnegie Mellon's Sheldon Cohen , the study found that the length of telomeres - protective cap-like protein complexes at the ends of chromosomes - predicts resistance to upper respiratory infections in young and midlife adults.

Life Sciences - Mechanical Engineering - 19.02.2013
Engineering Study Sheds New Light on Infant Brain Development
A new study by Columbia Engineering researchers finds that the infant brain does not control its blood flow in the same way as the adult brain. The findings, which the scientists say could change the way researchers study brain development in infants and children, are published in the February 18 Early Online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
What sleeping seals reveal about how the brain works
A new study led by an international team of biologists from the University of Toronto and UCLA has identified some of the brain chemicals that allow seals to sleep with half of their brain at a time. The study, published this month in the Journal of Neuroscience , identified the chemical cues that allow the seal brain to remain half awake and asleep.

Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
How the daffodil got its trumpet
How the daffodil got its trumpet
The daffodil is one of the few plants with a 'corona', a crown-like structure also referred to as the 'trumpet'. New research suggests that the corona is not an extension of the petals as previously thought, but is a distinct organ sharing more genetic identity with stamens, the pollen-producing reproductive organs.

Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
Towards a new moth perfume
A single mutation in a moth gene has been shown to be able to produce an entirely new scent. This has been shown in a new study led by researchers from Lund University in Sweden. In the long run, the researchers say that the results could contribute to tailored production of pheromones for pest control.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
Young malaria parasites refuse to take their medicine, which may explain emerging drug resistance: new study
Images of the parasite life cycle are available on request. Leann Tilley, T: +61 3 8344 2227; E: New research has revealed that immature malaria parasites are more resistant to treatment with key antimalarial drugs than older parasites, a finding that could lead to more effective treatments for a disease that kills one person every minute and is developing resistance to drugs at an alarming rate.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.02.2013
Computer modeling reveals how surprisingly potent hepatitis C drug works
Computer modeling reveals how surprisingly potent hepatitis C drug works
A study reveals how daclatasvir targets one of its proteins and causes the fastest viral decline ever seen with anti-HCV drugs - within 12 hours of treatment. Unraveling how this drug could cause such a rapid drop in the amount of virus in an infected person's blood could greatly enhance our ability to design optimal drug therapies and ultimately cure this disease.

Life Sciences - Health - 18.02.2013
Researchers develop tool for reading the minds of mice
Stanford Report, February 19, 2013 Stanford scientists have developed a system for observing real-time brain activity in a live mouse. The device could prove useful in studying new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's. If you want to read a mouse's mind, it takes some fluorescent protein and a tiny microscope implanted in the rodent's head.

Life Sciences - Health - 18.02.2013
Exercise doesnt only strengthen your heart and muscles it also beefs up your brain. Dozens of studies now show that aerobic exercise can increase the size of critical brain structures and improve cognition in children and older adults.The research is in: Physical activity enhances cognition
Exercise doesnt only strengthen your heart and muscles it also beefs up your brain. Dozens of studies now show that aerobic exercise can increase the size of critical brain structures and improve cognition in children and older adults.The research is in: Physical activity enhances cognition
CHAMPAIGN, lll. Exercise doesn't only strengthen your heart and muscles - it also beefs up your brain. Dozens of studies now show that aerobic exercise can increase the size of critical brain structures and improve cognition in children and older adults. University of Illinois psychology professor Art Kramer , a nationally recognized expert on the role of physical fitness on cognition, discussed these brain-changing outcomes at a session of the 2013 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston on Feb.

Health - Life Sciences - 18.02.2013
Ancient teeth reveal modern tooth decay
Ancient teeth reveal modern tooth decay
Prehistoric and medieval skeletons have revealed the incidence of dental decay could be worse than ever because of a decline in modern human's oral microbiota levels. Results of the four year PhD study by Christina Adler , Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Sydney have been published online today .

Environment - Life Sciences - 17.02.2013
Microbes team up to boost plants' stress tolerance
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. While most farmers consider viruses and fungi potential threats to their crops, these microbes can help wild plants adapt to extreme conditions, according to a Penn State virologist. Discovering how microbes collaborate to improve the hardiness of plants is a key to sustainable agriculture that can help meet increasing food demands, in addition to avoiding possible conflicts over scare resources, said Marilyn Roossinck, professor of plant pathology and environmental microbiology, and biology.

Mechanical Engineering - Life Sciences - 15.02.2013
Understanding why cells stick
Understanding why cells stick
It's thought abnormalities in their ability to do play an important role in a broad range of disorders, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The study's findings are outlined in the journal Molecular Cell and describe a surprising new aspect of cell adhesion involving the family of cell adhesion molecules known as integrins, which are found on the surfaces of most cells.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.02.2013
Minimally invasive test provides best alternative to colonoscopy
Minimally invasive test provides best alternative to colonoscopy
Research shows that a new scan offering patients a less invasive diagnostic test for possible bowel cancer is more effective than the current radiological standard of barium enema and should be considered alongside the 'gold standard' of colonoscopy. Computed tomographic colonography is the name of the newer procedure.

Life Sciences - 14.02.2013
Our primitive reflexes may be more sophisticated than they appear, study shows
Our primitive reflexes may be more sophisticated than they appear, study shows
Supposedly 'primitive' reflexes may involve more sophisticated brain function than previously thought, according to researchers at Imperial College London. The vestibular-ocular reflex (or VOR), common to most vertebrates, is what allows us to keep our eyes focused on a fixed point even while our heads are moving.

Life Sciences - Health - 14.02.2013
How Cilia Get Organized
How Cilia Get Organized
Just about every cell in your body contains microscopic organelles called cilia. Primary cilia act like antennas, detecting and relaying molecular signals from a cell's external environment. Motile cilia paddle together in a single direction, like oars on a rowboat, either moving a cell along or regulating the flow of fluids around the cell.