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Earth Sciences - Physics - 21.02.2013
Researchers Propose New Way to Probe Earth's Deep Interior
Researchers Propose New Way to Probe Earth’s Deep Interior
AUSTIN, Texas — Researchers from Amherst College and The University of Texas at Austin have described a new technique that might one day reveal in higher detail than ever before the composition and characteristics of the deep Earth. There's just one catch: The technique relies on a fifth force of nature (in addition to gravity, the weak and strong nuclear forces and electromagnetism) that has not yet been detected, but which some particle physicists think might exist.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 21.02.2013
Mercury may have harbored an ancient magma ocean
Massive lava flows may have given rise to two distinct rock types on Mercury's surface. By analyzing Mercury's rocky surface, scientists have been able to partially reconstruct the planet's history over billions of years. Now, drawing upon the chemical composition of rock features on the planet's surface, scientists at MIT have proposed that Mercury may have harbored a large, roiling ocean of magma very early in its history, shortly after its formation about 4.5 billion years ago.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 21.02.2013
Tiny planet outside our solar system a big surprise
Tiny planet outside our solar system a big surprise
The detection of a tiny planet has shown for the first time that stars in our galaxy are able to host much smaller planets than anything seen in our own solar system. The existence of the planet, Kepler-37b, the innermost of three planets that orbit the sun-like host star, Kepler-37, is announced in the journal Nature today.

Physics - 20.02.2013
Close look at iron-based superconductor advances theory
Close look at iron-based superconductor advances theory
Cornell researchers have resolved a longstanding theoretical debate about the electronic structure of iron-based superconductors by directly observing it at the atomic scale. The work is reported in the Feb. 24 online edition of. A team led by J. C. Sťamus Davis, the James Gilbert White Distinguished Professor in the Physical Sciences and director of the Center for Emergent Superconductivity at Brookhaven National Laboratory, studied a compound of iron, calcium and arsenic that is "doped" by replacing a few of the iron atoms with cobalt atoms.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 20.02.2013
A cool discovery about the Sun’s next-door twin
ESA's Herschel space observatory has detected a cool layer in the atmosphere of Alpha Centauri A, the first time this has been seen in a star beyond our own Sun. The finding is not only important for understanding the Sun's activity, but could also help in the quest to discover proto-planetary systems around other stars.

Life Sciences - Physics - 20.02.2013
First signals from brain nerve cells with ultrathin nanowires
Electrodes operated into the brain are today used in research and to treat diseases such as Parkinsonís. However, their use has been limited by their size. At Lund University in Sweden, researchers have, for the first time, succeeded in implanting an ultrathin nanowire-based electrode and capturing signals from the nerve cells in the brain of a laboratory animal.

Physics - Continuing Education - 19.02.2013
Researchers Help Show That Blood Plasma Is Thicker Than Water
Researchers Help Show That Blood Plasma Is Thicker Than Water
For decades, researchers thought that blood plasma behaved like water. But, according to new research from the University of Pennsylvania and Saarland University in Germany, plasma is more elastic and viscous than water, and, like ketchup, its flow properties depend on the pressure it is under. These traits mean that blood plasma has a much greater effect on how blood flows than was previously thought.

Physics - 15.02.2013
Playing quantum tricks with measurements
Playing quantum tricks with measurements
A team of physicists at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, performed an experiment that seems to contradict the foundations of quantum theory - at first glance. The team led by Rainer Blatt reversed a quantum measurement in a prototype quantum information processor. The experiment is enabled by a technique that has been developed for quantum error correction in a future quantum computer.

Physics - Chemistry - 14.02.2013
A Dual Look at Photosystem II Using the World's Most Powerful X-Ray Laser
A Dual Look at Photosystem II Using the World’s Most Powerful X-Ray Laser
From providing living cells with energy, to nitrogen fixation, to the splitting of water molecules, the catalytic activities of metalloenzymes - proteins that contain a metal ion - are vital to life on Earth. A better understanding of the chemistry behind these catalytic activities could pave the way for exciting new technologies, most prominently artificial photosynthesis systems that would provide† clean, green and renewable energy.

Chemistry - Physics - 14.02.2013
New technique developed to separate complex molecular mixtures
New technique developed to separate complex molecular mixtures
Chemists at the University of Liverpool have created a new technique that could be used in industry to separate complex organic chemical mixtures. Chemical feedstocks containing benzene are used extensively in industry to create modern materials and polymers. Distillation techniques Their use relies heavily on distillation techniques which separate complex mixtures into more simple molecules used as building blocks to develop drugs, plastics and new materials.

Physics - Economics / Business - 14.02.2013
Quantum cryptography put to work for electric grid security
Quantum cryptography put to work for electric grid security
LANL's quantum cryptography team successfully completed the first-ever demonstration of securing control data for electric grids using quantum cryptography. This project shows that quantum cryptography is compatible with electric-grid control communications, providing strong security assurances rooted in the laws of physics, without introducing excessive delays in data delivery.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 13.02.2013
Cosmic rays come from exploding stars, say Stanford astrophysicists
Cosmic rays come from exploding stars, say Stanford astrophysicists
Stanford Report, February 14, 2013 Researchers use data from an orbiting gamma-ray telescope to settle the issue: cosmic rays do indeed have their origin in exploding supernovas. A new study confirms what scientists have long suspected: Cosmic rays – energetic particles that pelt Earth from all directions – are born in the violent aftermath of supernovas, exploding stars throughout the galaxy.

Physics - Chemistry - 13.02.2013
New carbon films improve prospects of solar energy devices
New research by Yale University scientists helps pave the way for the next generation of solar cells, a renewable energy technology that directly converts solar energy into electricity. In a pair of recent papers, Yale engineers report a novel and cost-effective way to improve the efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells through the application of thin, smooth carbon nanotube films.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 12.02.2013
Five years of unique science on Columbus
Since Europe's Columbus laboratory module was attached to the International Space Station five years ago, it has offered researchers worldwide the opportunity to conduct science beyond the effects of gravity. A total of 110 ESA-led experiments involving some 500 scientists have been conducted since 2008, spanning fluid physics, material sciences, radiation physics, the Sun, the human body, biology and astrobiology.

Physics - Chemistry - 12.02.2013
New Material Promises Better Solar Cells
Researchers at the Vienna University of Technology show that a recently discovered class of materials can be used to create a new kind of solar cell. Single atomic layers are combined to create novel materials with completely new properties. Layered oxide heterostructures are a new class of materials, which has attracted a great deal of attention among materials scientists in the last few years.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 07.02.2013
New Sussex study furthers Einstein's 'theory of everything'
New Sussex study furthers Einstein’s ’theory of everything’
Sussex physicists have taken a small step towards fulfilling Einstein's dream of proving there is only one fundamental force in nature. Following last year's discovery of the Higgs boson particle - the so-called "God particle" that answers how the particles have masses - Xavier Calmet and PhD student Michael Atkins looked at how the Higgs field interacts with gravity.

Chemistry - Physics - 07.02.2013
New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels
New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels
Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical feedstocks could reduce society's dependence on foreign oil and ensure the long-term availability of renewable materials for consumer products.

Physics - Chemistry - 05.02.2013
New findings on the structure of graphite oxides in alcohols
Press Release from UmeŚ University The structure of graphite oxide surprisingly expands when cooled in methanol or ethanol. Also, graphite oxide selectively absorbs methanol from water-methanol mixtures. Two new studies by physicists at UmeŚ University in Sweden, published in ACS Nano and J. Phys.

Physics - Life Sciences - 04.02.2013
Researchers improve quantum-dot performance
New production method could enable everything from more efficient computer displays to enhanced biomedical testing. Quantum dots - tiny particles that emit light in a dazzling array of glowing colors - have the potential for many applications, but have faced a series of hurdles to improved performance.

Physics - Computer Science - 04.02.2013
Into the quantum internet at the speed of light
Into the quantum internet at the speed of light
Not only do optical fibers transmit information every day around the world at the speed of light, but they can also be harnessed for the transport of quantum information. In the current , a research team of Innsbruck physicists led by Rainer Blatt and Tracy Northup report how they have directly transferred the quantum information stored in an atom onto a particle of light.
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