news 2016



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Economics - 22.12.2016
Study suggests hydraulic fracturing boosts local economies
The first nationwide study of the comprehensive local impacts of hydraulic fracturing finds that when costs and benefits are added up, communities on average benefit from allowing it.

Health - Economics - 22.12.2016
Healthy behaviors determine weight-loss surgery success
Bariatric surgery can slim your body, but attitude and behavior also play key roles in long-term weight loss, according to new research from the Cornell Food and Brand Lab. 'Although very effective, bariatric surgery is a not a low-effort means of losing weight,' said lead author Anna-Leena Vuorinen of VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, who performed the research as a visiting scholar at the Food and Brand Lab.

Life Sciences - Economics - 16.12.2016
Conflicts of interest and publications on GM Bt crops
Three INRA researchers have analyzed the scientific literature on the efficacy or durability of Bt transgenic plants in terms of the possible link of interest between this research and the biotechnology industries. They publish their results in the journal PLOS ONE of 15 December 2016. They show that 40% of the publications studied present a financial conflict of interest 1 .

Life Sciences - Economics - 15.12.2016
Analyzing brain patterns may help neuroscientists increase people's confidence, reduce fear
Analyzing brain patterns may help neuroscientists increase people’s confidence, reduce fear
A new technique of analyzing brain patterns appears to help people overcome fear and build self-confidence. The approach, developed by a UCLA-led team of neuroscientists, is described in two new papers, published in the journals Nature Communications and Nature Human Behaviour. Their method could have implications for treating people with depression, dementia and anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, said Hakwan Lau, a UCLA associate professor of psychology and the senior author of both studies.

Economics - 08.12.2016
Mobile-money services lift Kenyans out of poverty
Mobile-money services lift Kenyans out of poverty
Since 2008, MIT economist Tavneet Suri has studied the financial and social impacts of Kenyan mobile-money services, which allow users to store and exchange monetary values via mobile phone. Her work has shown that these services have helped Kenyans save more money and weather financial storms, among other benefits.

Economics - Career - 06.12.2016
The Work Foundation launches Commission on Good Work
The Work Foundation , part of Lancaster University, has launched a brand new "Commission on Good Work". At an exclusive breakfast in the Churchill War Rooms, the new Director of the Work Foundation, Lesley Giles , welcomed senior leaders in business, trade unions, professional bodies, and the public and voluntary sectors.

Economics - 18.11.2016
It’s Time for Pollsters to Report Margins of Error More Hone
In 2016, public opinion polling suffered two epic failures. Because polls erred in predicting the winners in both the Brexit referendum and the U.S. presidential election, critics have dissected pollsters' questions and their methods. But a very insidious source of error has remained hidden from public view: margins of error and the way in which pollsters calculate and present them.

Economics - Health - 16.11.2016
Study sheds light on 'surprise' ER billing
Study sheds light on ‘surprise’ ER billing
In an unprecedented study of 2.2 million emergency room visits across the United States, Yale researchers found that 22% of patients who went to emergency departments within their health-insurance networks were treated by an out-of-network doctor and potentially incurred major, unexpected expenses.

Economics - Law - 07.11.2016
Online gambling regulations should be tightened to protect children and young people, research finds
Online gambling regulations should be tightened to protect children and young people, research finds
Children and adolescents are being targeted by online gambling websites due to flaws in advertising legislation, according to new research from Queen Mary University of London and City University London. The researchers point to recent statistics from an international research review which suggest that 77 to 83 per cent of adolescents are involved in some kind of gambling, and 10 to 15 per cent of adolescents are at risk of developing serious gambling problems.

Economics - 07.11.2016
New research from Penn State Smeal examines ’jilting effect’ on consumers
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. New research from the Penn State Smeal College of Business suggests that when people have an expectation of receiving a highly attractive option and then it falls through, what they possess no longer seems as satisfying as it once did.

Economics - Philosophy - 01.11.2016
Elephant poaching costs African economies US $25 million per year in lost tourism revenue
New research shows investing in elephant conservation is smart economic policy for many African countries. We know that within parks, tourism suffers when elephant poaching ramps up. This work provides a first estimate of the scale of that loss Andrew Balmford The current elephant poaching crisis costs African countries around USD $25 million annually in lost tourism revenue, according to a new study published .

Economics - 31.10.2016
Researchers from Stanford, MIT and the University of Washington find ride-share drivers discriminate based on race and gender
New research shows that ride-share users wait longer for pickups and are more likely to have their rides canceled if they appear to be African-American. Stephen Zoepf, executive director of the Center for Automotive Research at Stanford (Image credit: Justin Knight) Research that involved tracking ride-share data for white and African-American customers found that ride-share drivers in Boston and Seattle were more likely to cancel on African-American travelers than white travelers, and that African-Americans had to wait longer to be picked up.

Social Sciences - Economics - 31.10.2016
Simple questionnaire predicts unprotected sex, binge drinking
Researchers in the social sciences have been searching for a holy grail: an accurate way to predict who is likely to engage in problematic behavior, like using drugs. Over the years experts in economics, psychology and public health have designed hundreds of questionnaires in an attempt to understand who will binge drink or have unprotected sex - and why.

Environment - Economics - 26.10.2016
New model suggests scrubbing CO2 from the atmosphere
In this test plot of biochar, carbon is amended to the soil - where it stays - where it can be used as a fertilization substitute for crops. New Cornell research suggests an economically viable model to scrub carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to thwart runaway, point-of-no-return global warming. The researchers propose using a 'bioenergy-biochar system' that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in an environmental pinch, until other removal methods become economically feasible and in regions where other methods are impractical.

Economics - 26.10.2016
Strong link between increased benefit sanctions and higher foodbank use
The researchers found that for every 10 additional sanctions applied in each quarter of the year, on average five more adults would be referred to foodbanks in the area. There is a 'strong, dynamic' relationship between people having their benefits stopped and an increase in referral to foodbanks, new research has found.

Economics - Administration - 24.10.2016
Uber service faster in low income Seattle neighborhoods, initial study finds
Uber service faster in low income Seattle neighborhoods, initial study finds
Your wait time for an Uber ride in Seattle is shorter if you are in a lower income neighborhood. Alternatively, wait times are longer for an Uber in wealthier neighborhoods, according to a new University of Washington study that compares Uber service across different neighborhoods in the Seattle region.

Health - Economics - 21.10.2016
Pharmaceutical companies profit from rare diseases, report finds
Incentives intended to stimulate the development of more treatments for rare diseases are being exploited to boost the profits of pharmaceutical companies, new research from the University of Liverpool shows. Researchers found that companies which market drugs for rare diseases (known as orphan drugs) are five times more profitable and have up to 15% higher market value than other drug companies.

Health - Economics - 19.10.2016
With Medicaid, ER visits remain high for two years
With Medicaid, ER visits remain high for two years
People enrolled in Medicaid significantly increase their emergency room visits for at least two years after they first sign up, according to a new study co-authored by an MIT economist. The finding will likely surprise those health care experts who have projected that people would make fewer ER visits after acquiring health insurance.

Health - Economics - 18.10.2016
A major challenge for young heart attack patients: affordable healthcare
A major challenge for young heart attack patients: affordable healthcare
In the year following a heart attack, financial barriers to healthcare are linked to worse health outcomes in young women and young men, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA).

Economics - Psychology - 05.10.2016
Distracted much? New research may help explain why
Distracted much? New research may help explain why
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — American professional golfer Tom Kite said two things about distraction that sum up the findings of a new study on the subject: First, "You can always find a distraction if you're looking for one." And, second, "Discipline and concentration are a matter of being interested." The new research offers evidence that one's motivation is just as important for sustained attention to a task as is the ease with which the task is done.
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