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Physics - Chemistry - 23.12.2016
First movie of energy transfer in photosynthesis solves decades-old debate
First movie of energy transfer in photosynthesis solves decades-old debate
Using ultrafast imaging of moving energy in photosynthesis, scientists have determined the speed of crucial processes for the first time. This should help scientists understand how nature has perfected the process of photosynthesis, and how this might be copied to produce fuels by artificial photosynthesis.

Physics - 22.12.2016
Tapping into long-lived sound waves in glass
Tapping into long-lived sound waves in glass
Yale scientists have shown how to enhance the lifetime of sound waves traveling through glass - the material at the heart of fiber optic technologies. The discovery will be described in the January edition of. Everyday experience tells us that glass (silica) is highly transparent. In fact, silica is one of the most transparent materials on earth.

Chemistry - Physics - 21.12.2016
Materials: when defects turn into qualities
Materials: when defects turn into qualities
Hybrid organic-inorganic materials, which were developed approximately twenty years ago – notably by Gérard Férey, laureate of the CNRS 2010 Gold Medal, and his team – are known firstly for their extreme porosity. This remarkable property offers a diverse range of applications in the fields of energy, health, and sustainable development.

Chemistry - Physics - 21.12.2016
'Glue' that makes plant cell walls strong could hold the key to wooden skyscrapers
‘Glue’ that makes plant cell walls strong could hold the key to wooden skyscrapers
Molecules 10,000 times narrower than the width of a human hair could hold the key to making possible wooden skyscrapers and more energy-efficient paper production, according to research published today . The study, led by a father and son team at the Universities of Warwick and Cambridge, solves a long-standing mystery of how key sugars in cells bind to form strong, indigestible materials.

Physics - Electroengineering - 21.12.2016
Graphene able to transport huge currents on the nano scale
Graphene able to transport huge currents on the nano scale
New experiments have shown that it is possible for extremely high currents to pass through graphene, a form of carbon. This allows imbalances in electric charge to be rapidly rectified. The strong electric field of the highly charged ions is able to tear dozens of electrons away from the graphene within a matter of femtoseconds.

Physics - Electroengineering - 20.12.2016
Scientists detect a quantum crystal of electrons and 'watch' it melt
Scientists detect a quantum crystal of electrons and ‘watch’ it melt
For the first time, MIT physicists have observed a highly ordered crystal of electrons in a semiconducting material and documented its melting, much like ice thawing into water. The observations confirm a fundamental phase transition in quantum mechanics that was theoretically proposed more than 80 years ago but not experimentally documented until now.

Physics - Chemistry - 19.12.2016
Physicists shine light on antimatter
Scientists from the University of Liverpool as part of CERN's ALPHA collaboration have made the first spectroscopic measurement of an atom of antimatter - a longstanding goal in antimatter physics. Published , this finding represents a significant step towards the development of highly precise tests of whether matter behaves differently from antimatter.

Physics - 19.12.2016
Building Better Batteries
Building Better Batteries
Lithium-ion batteries, widely used in devices ranging from electric cars to iPhones, are composed of a cathode made from a positively charged lithium compound and an anode composed of negatively charged carbon. Ideally, anodes would be made of lithium metal, which can store more energy than carbon. However, lithium metal anodes have a serious flaw'over time, the lithium metal grows dendrites, tiny needle-like branching structures that can grow through the battery causing it to short-circuit or even explode.

Physics - 19.12.2016
Stretching time to improve extreme event prediction
Stretching time to improve extreme event prediction
Stretching time scales to explore extreme events in nature seemed impossible, yet this feat is now conceivable thanks to a team from the Institut FEMTO-ST (CNRS/UFC/UTBM/ENSMM), which used an innovative measurement technique enabling the capture of such events in real time. This technique, which is currently applied in the field of photonics, could help predict rogue wave events 1 on the ocean surface, along with other extreme natural phenomena.

Environment - Physics - 16.12.2016
Ocean temperatures faithfully recorded in mother-of-pearl
For News Media Pupa Gilbert (608) 262-5829, pupa [at] physics.wisc (p) edu × Nacre, also known as mother-of pearl, is the biomineral that lines some seashells. New research shows it keeps a record of ancient ocean temperatures. UW-Madison Mother-of-pearl or nacre (pronounced nay-ker), the lustrous, tough-as-nails biomineral that lines some seashells, has been shown to be a faithful record of ancient ocean temperature.

Physics - 16.12.2016
Towards energy-saving data storage
Towards energy-saving data storage
A new material retains its special magnetic properties even at room temperature A new material could become the basis for future data storage devices, since it may enable significant reductions in energy demands in comparison to present-day hard drives. This is a material from the class of so-called magnetoelectric multiferroics, whose distinguishing characteristic is that their magnetic and electrical properties are coupled to each other.

Life Sciences - Physics - 13.12.2016
Study links nutrition to brain health and intelligence in older adults
Study links nutrition to brain health and intelligence in older adults
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — A study of older adults links consumption of a pigment found in leafy greens that tends to accumulate in brain tissue to the preservation of "crystallized intelligence," the ability to use the skills and knowledge one has acquired over a lifetime. The study is reported in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.

Physics - Chemistry - 13.12.2016
Measuring radiation damage on the fly
Measuring radiation damage on the fly
Materials exposed to a high-radiation environment such as the inside of a nuclear reactor vessel can gradually degrade and weaken. But to determine exactly how much damage these materials suffer generally requires removing a sample and testing it in specialized facilities, a process that can take weeks.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 09.12.2016
Understanding how ice crystals form in clouds
Understanding how ice crystals form in clouds
How ice forms on the surfaces of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere has been revealed by a team from UCL and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. More than 90% of precipitation over land relies on the formation of ice crystals on airborne aerosol particles but why only a tiny fraction of all atmospheric particles can initiate ice growth is unknown.

Life Sciences - Physics - 08.12.2016
7 Imaging Tools Pushing Science Forward
Berkeley Lab scientists are developing new ways to see the unseen. Here are seven imaging advances (recently reported in our News Center) that are helping to push science forward, from developing better batteries to peering inside cells to exploring the nature of the universe. 1.  Seeing DNA nanostructures in 3-D DNA segments can serve as a nanoscale building material, and scientists have devised a new way to see the shape of nanoscale DNA segments in 3-D.

Materials Science - Physics - 07.12.2016
Porous crystalline materials: TU Graz researcher shows method for controlled growth
Porous crystalline materials: TU Graz researcher shows method for controlled growth
Microporous crystals (MOFs) have a great potential as functional materials of the future. Paolo Falcaro of TU Graz et al demonstrate how the growth of MOFs can be precisely controlled on a large scale. Porous crystals called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consist of metallic intersections with organic molecules as connecting elements.

Electroengineering - Physics - 05.12.2016
A new memory technology may be more energy efficient than previously thought
While exploring the atomic-level forces at play in a new type of computer chip, researchers found an energy-saving surprise that could translate into longer battery life for next-generation mobile devices. Scientists often discover interesting things without completely understanding how they work. That has been the case with an experimental memory technology in which temperature and voltage work together to create the conditions for data storage.

Physics - Health - 02.12.2016
High-precision magnetic field sensing
High-precision magnetic field sensing
Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas. Researchers from the Institute for Biomedical Engineering, which is operated jointly by ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich, have succeeded in measuring tiny changes in strong magnetic fields with unprecedented precision.

Chemistry - Physics - 01.12.2016
A watershed moment in understanding how H2O conducts electricity
A watershed moment in understanding how H2O conducts electricity
Scientists have taken spectroscopic snapshots of nature's most mysterious relay race: the passage of extra protons from one water molecule to another during conductivity. The finding represents a major benchmark in our knowledge of how water conducts a positive electrical charge, which is a fundamental mechanism found in biology and chemistry.

Physics - Chemistry - 01.12.2016
For the first time, scientists catch water molecules passing the proton baton
For the first time, scientists catch water molecules passing the proton baton
Water conducts electricity, but the process by which this familiar fluid passes along positive charges has puzzled scientists for decades. But in a paper published in the Dec. 2 issue of the journal Science , an international team of researchers has finally caught water in the act - showing how water molecules pass along excess charges and, in the process, conduct electricity.
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