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Chemistry - Physics - 12.12.2017
X-Rays Provide Key Insights on Path to Lithium-Rich Battery Electrode
X-Rays Provide Key Insights on Path to Lithium-Rich Battery Electrode
Experiments and modeling at Berkeley Lab help to reveal new details about material that holds promise for driving electric vehicles farther Note: This press release is adapted from the original release by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. View the original release. -By Glennda Chui/SLAC This movie introduces LCLS-II, a future X-ray light source.

Health - Life Sciences - 12.12.2017
Tapeworm drug could lead the fight against Parkinson’s disease
Researchers at Cardiff University, in collaboration with the University of Dundee, have identified a drug molecule within a medicine used to treat tapeworm infections which could lead to new treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that, according to the charity, Parkinson's UK, affects one person in every 500.

Materials Science - 12.12.2017
Tailor-made asphalt
Tailor-made asphalt
The one ideal asphalt for all conditions does not exist: climatic conditions, traffic frequencies and loads place different demands on the pavement. Another challenge: preparing old asphalt so that it can be used for new pavements. Thanks to Empa researchers, the design of the ideal asphalt for every type of road has finally become easier.

Health - 12.12.2017
Ultra-thin tissue samples could help to understand and treat heart disease
Ultra-thin tissue samples could help to understand and treat heart disease
A new method for preparing ultra-thin slices of heart tissue in the lab could help scientists to study how cells behave inside a beating heart. The heart is made up of millions of individual muscle cells called cardiomyocytes that are kept in place by a criss-crossing network of collagen fibres. These cells work together, contracting in sync to create a strong and regular heartbeat.

Earth Sciences - 12.12.2017
Small earthquakes at fracking sites may indicate bigger tremors to come
Tiny tremors caused by hydraulic fracturing of natural gas near the surface could be early signs of stressful conditions deep underground that could destabilize faults and trigger larger earthquakes. Stanford geoscientists have devised a way of detecting thousands of faint, previously missed earthquakes triggered by hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking." A drill rig at the Fayetteville Shale gas play in Arkansas.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2017
How privacy policies affect genetic testing
How privacy policies affect genetic testing
Different types of privacy laws in U.S. states produce markedly different effects on the willingness of patients to have genetic testing done, according to a new study co-authored by an MIT professor. As the research shows, policies that focus on the privacy risks of genetic testing, and ask for patient consent to those risks, lead to a reduction in tests performed.

Physics - Chemistry - 12.12.2017
Engineers create plants that glow
Engineers create plants that glow
Imagine that instead of switching on a lamp when it gets dark, you could read by the light of a glowing plant on your desk. MIT engineers have taken a critical first step toward making that vision a reality. By embedding specialized nanoparticles into the leaves of a watercress plant, they induced the plants to give off dim light for nearly four hours.

Life Sciences - 12.12.2017
Secrets from beyond extinction: Tasmanian tiger was a kangaroo in wolf’s clothing
The Tasmanian tiger genome has been sequenced, making it one of the most complete genetic blueprints for an extinct species. The genetic blueprint provides crucial new information on the biology of this unique marsupial and how the Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) evolved to look so similar to the dingo, despite being very distantly related.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 11.12.2017
Shatter-proof mobile phone screens a step closer with ANU research
An international study on glass led by ANU and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris in France could lead to the development of shatter-proof mobile phone screens. Lead researcher Dr Charles Le Losq from ANU said the new knowledge, based on experiments and computer modelling, could be used to alter the structure of glass to improve resistance to fractures.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.12.2017
Scientists successfully demonstrate a new way to help nerve regeneration in spinal cord injury
Scientists successfully demonstrate a new way to help nerve regeneration in spinal cord injury
A new way of triggering nerve regeneration to help repair spinal cord injury and in the longer-term potentially paralysis has successfully been demonstrated by University of Bristol scientists. The work is published in PLOS ONE today [Monday 11 December]. There is currently no cure for spinal cord injury or treatment to help nerve regeneration so therapies offering intervention are limited.

Health - Pharmacology - 11.12.2017
Novartis drug crizanlizumab shown to prolong time to patients’ first sickle cell pain crisis in subgroup analysis of SUSTAIN study
Investigational therapy crizanlizumab (SEG101, formerly SelG1) approximately doubled the time to first on-treatment sickle cell pain crisis, according to new subgroup analysis of Phase II SUSTAIN data Results were consistent across patient subgroups despite differences in disease severity, genotype or background therapy New findings for crizanlizumab, a potential disease-modifying, preventive treatment option for patients with sickle cell diseas

Health - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Hormone discovery marks breakthough in understanding fertility
Scientists at The University of Nottingham have shown, for the first time, that a naturally occurring hormone plays a vital part in regulating a woman's fertility, a discovery that could lead to better diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Research by Associate Professor Ravinder Anand-Ivell , Professor Richard Ivell and Yanzhenzi Dai in the School of Biosciences has been published in the online journal Frontiers in Physiology.

Environment - 11.12.2017
Presenting facts as 'consensus' bridges conservative-liberal divide over climate change
Presenting facts as ’consensus’ bridges conservative-liberal divide over climate change
New evidence shows that 'social fact' highlighting expert consensus shifts perceptions across US political spectrum - particularly among highly educated conservatives. Facts that encourage agreement are a promising way of cutting through today's 'post-truth' bluster, say psychologists. Even in our so-called post-truth environment, hope is not lost for the fact Sander van der Linden In the murk of post-truth public debate, facts can polarise.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Twitter can reveal our shared mood
Twitter can reveal our shared mood
In the largest study of its kind, researchers from the University of Bristol have analysed mood indicators in text from 800 million anonymous messages posted on Twitter. These tweets were found to reflect strong patterns of positive and negative moods over the 24-hour day. Circadian rhythms, widely referred to as the 'body clock', allows people's bodies to predict their needs over the dark and light periods of the day.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.12.2017
Blood flow-sensing protein protects against atherosclerosis in mice
Blood flow-sensing protein protects against atherosclerosis in mice
FINDINGS UCLA scientists have found that a protein known as NOTCH1 helps ward off inflammation in the walls of blood vessels, preventing atherosclerosis — the narrowing and hardening of arteries that can cause heart attacks and strokes. The new finding , from research conducted on mice, also explains why areas of smooth, fast blood flow are less prone to inflammation: levels of NOTCH1 are higher in these vessels.

Art and Design - Chemistry - 11.12.2017
Scientists from UCLA, National Gallery of Art pioneer new way to analyze ancient artwork
'Macroscale multimodal chemical imaging' reveals details about second century Egyptian painting Matthew Chin Scientists from UCLA and the National Gallery of Art have used a combination of three advanced imaging techniques to produce a highly detailed analysis of a second century Egyptian painting. They are the first to use the specific combination — which they termed "macroscale multimodal chemical imaging" — to examine an ancient work of art.

Health - 11.12.2017
"Death receptors" - new markers for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have found that the presence of death receptors in the blood can be used to directly measure the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. "We see that people with known risk factors such as high blood sugar and high blood fats also have heightened death receptor levels", says Professor Jan Nilsson who led the study.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 11.12.2017
Over 50s with fewer teeth at risk of frailty
Over 50s with fewer than 20 teeth at higher risk of musculoskeletal frailty New research by scientists at King's College London has found that tooth loss may contribute to musculoskeletal frailty in the over 50s, with those with fewer than 20 teeth being at greatest risk. Published in Geriatrics & Gerontology International on 11 December, the research led by Dr Wael Sabbah, from King's College London Dental Institute, examined the overall health of 9,338 Americans aged 50 years and older.

Health - Social Sciences - 11.12.2017
Babies born during famine have lower cognition in midlife
ANN ARBOR-Hunger and malnutrition in infancy may lead to poor cognitive performance in midlife, according to a new study. Researchers at University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Columbia University have found that child survivors of China's 1959-61 famine that killed millions appear to be haunted by their past, as their cognitive performances go downhill in their early 50s.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.12.2017
Decades of increased burning deplete soil carbon
Long-term effects of repeated fires on soils found to have significant impacts on carbon storage not previously considered in global greenhouse gas estimates. Frequent burning over decades reduces the amount of carbon and nitrogen stored in soils of savanna grasslands and broadleaf forests, in part because reduced plant growth means less carbon being drawn out of the atmosphere and stored in plant matter.
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