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Chemistry - Physics - 13.12.2017
Less Than Skin Deep: Humans Can Feel Molecular Differences Between Nearly Identical Surfaces
How sensitive is the human sense of touch? Sensitive enough to feel the difference between surfaces that differ by just a single layer of molecules, a team of researchers at the University of California San Diego has shown. "This is the greatest tactile sensitivity that has ever been shown in humans," said Darren Lipomi, a professor of nanoengineering and member of the Center for Wearable Sensors at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering, who led the interdisciplinary project with V. S.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 13.12.2017
Even wild mammals have regional dialects
Researchers from Cardiff University's Otter Project have discovered that genetically distinct populations of wild otters from across the UK have their own regional odours for communicating vital information to each other. The findings could have implications for wild mammal conservation efforts. The study, which profiled chemical secretions from the Eurasian otter, suggests that genetically distinct populations of wild mammals have different odour dialects, which may have been driven by geographical separation.

Health - Psychology - 13.12.2017
27% of California adolescents are gender nonconforming, study finds
It is the first representative survey of the state's youth population to measure gender expression Rachel Dowd A new UCLA study finds that 27 percent, or 796,000, of California's youth, ages 12 to 17, report they are viewed by others as gender nonconforming at school. The study also assessed differences in mental health among gender nonconforming youth and gender conforming youth in the state, and found no significant difference in the rates of lifetime suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts between gender nonconforming youth and their gender conforming peers.

Life Sciences - Health - 13.12.2017
Cellular Self-Digestion Process Triggers Autoimmune Disease
Autophagy refers to a fundamental recycling process of cells that occurs in yeast, fungi, plants, as well as animals and humans. This process allows cells to degrade their own components and thus activate energy resources to be able to adapt to nutritional needs. In addition, autophagy plays a central role in steering an organism's immune response.

Health - 13.12.2017
Reporting a few cases of negative side effects is alarmist and damaging
A story aired on the ABC that reported on issues concerning long-acting contraceptives was unbalanced and alarmist writes Associate Professor Kirsten Black. Last night ABC's 7.30 featured a  report on long-acting reversible contraception  (LARC) that was unbalanced and alarmist. This could have a long-lasting detrimental impact on women's reproductive health in Australia.

Physics - Computer Science - 13.12.2017
Computer systems predict objects' responses to physical forces
Computer systems predict objects’ responses to physical forces
Josh Tenenbaum, a professor of brain and cognitive sciences at MIT, directs research on the development of intelligence at the Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines, a multiuniversity, multidisciplinary project based at MIT that seeks to explain and replicate human intelligence.

Life Sciences - 13.12.2017
Discovery of world's oldest plesiosaur
Discovery of world’s oldest plesiosaur
While dinosaurs reigned on dry land and in the sky, other reptiles populated the seas and oceans. Of the latter, plesiosaurs, whose means of locomotion may be described as “underwater flight,” formed the most diverse group. But when did they first appear? The discovery of the oldest of these reptiles provides evidence that they had diversified by the start of the Mesozoic Era, during the Triassic Period.

Health - Law - 12.12.2017
Pediatric cancer providers give medical marijuana a cautious thumbs-up
New research by Yale Cancer Center (YCC) researchers shows a majority of pediatric cancer providers endorse the potential use of medical marijuana for children with advanced cancer, although providers who are legally eligible to certify its use are more cautious than those who aren't. The findings also show clinicians would prefer to see much stronger clinical evidence that marijuana treatments can help in relieving symptoms, such as nausea and pain.

Health - Life Sciences - 12.12.2017
Diabetes in pregnancy affects baby's heart
Diabetes in pregnancy affects baby’s heart
Researchers at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered how high glucose levels — whether caused by diabetes or other factors — keep heart cells from maturing normally. Their findings help explain why babies born to women with diabetes are more likely to develop congenital heart disease.

Health - 12.12.2017
Drug blocks Zika and dengue viruses in study
A small-molecule inhibitor tested by researchers at Yale and Stanford may be the answer to blocking the spread of harmful mosquito-borne pathogens, including Zika and dengue viruses, according to a new study published in Cell Reports. The molecule, dubbed NGI-1, was identified by co-author Joseph Contessa, M.D., an associate professor of therapeutic radiology and of pharmacology at Yale School of Medicine.

Chemistry - Physics - 12.12.2017
X-Rays Provide Key Insights on Path to Lithium-Rich Battery Electrode
X-Rays Provide Key Insights on Path to Lithium-Rich Battery Electrode
Experiments and modeling at Berkeley Lab help to reveal new details about material that holds promise for driving electric vehicles farther Note: This press release is adapted from the original release by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. View the original release. -By Glennda Chui/SLAC This movie introduces LCLS-II, a future X-ray light source.

Health - Life Sciences - 12.12.2017
Tapeworm drug could lead the fight against Parkinson’s disease
Researchers at Cardiff University, in collaboration with the University of Dundee, have identified a drug molecule within a medicine used to treat tapeworm infections which could lead to new treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that, according to the charity, Parkinson's UK, affects one person in every 500.

Materials Science - 12.12.2017
Tailor-made asphalt
Tailor-made asphalt
The one ideal asphalt for all conditions does not exist: climatic conditions, traffic frequencies and loads place different demands on the pavement. Another challenge: preparing old asphalt so that it can be used for new pavements. Thanks to Empa researchers, the design of the ideal asphalt for every type of road has finally become easier.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 12.12.2017
Seabed landscape crucial for fish conservation
Conservation and fisheries management strategies should take into account seabed landscape in order to maintain fish conservation. A new study led by the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the University of Strathclyde and Marine Scotland Science and that is published in PLOS ONE, demonstrates the importance of protecting different seabed landscapes in order to maintain a healthy and diverse stock of fish, including cod, haddock and whiting.

Health - 12.12.2017
Ultra-thin tissue samples could help to understand and treat heart disease
Ultra-thin tissue samples could help to understand and treat heart disease
A new method for preparing ultra-thin slices of heart tissue in the lab could help scientists to study how cells behave inside a beating heart. The heart is made up of millions of individual muscle cells called cardiomyocytes that are kept in place by a criss-crossing network of collagen fibres. These cells work together, contracting in sync to create a strong and regular heartbeat.

Earth Sciences - 12.12.2017
Small earthquakes at fracking sites may indicate bigger tremors to come
Tiny tremors caused by hydraulic fracturing of natural gas near the surface could be early signs of stressful conditions deep underground that could destabilize faults and trigger larger earthquakes. Stanford geoscientists have devised a way of detecting thousands of faint, previously missed earthquakes triggered by hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking." A drill rig at the Fayetteville Shale gas play in Arkansas.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2017
How privacy policies affect genetic testing
How privacy policies affect genetic testing
Different types of privacy laws in U.S. states produce markedly different effects on the willingness of patients to have genetic testing done, according to a new study co-authored by an MIT professor. As the research shows, policies that focus on the privacy risks of genetic testing, and ask for patient consent to those risks, lead to a reduction in tests performed.

Physics - Chemistry - 12.12.2017
Engineers create plants that glow
Engineers create plants that glow
Imagine that instead of switching on a lamp when it gets dark, you could read by the light of a glowing plant on your desk. MIT engineers have taken a critical first step toward making that vision a reality. By embedding specialized nanoparticles into the leaves of a watercress plant, they induced the plants to give off dim light for nearly four hours.

Life Sciences - 12.12.2017
Secrets from beyond extinction: Tasmanian tiger was a kangaroo in wolf’s clothing
The Tasmanian tiger genome has been sequenced, making it one of the most complete genetic blueprints for an extinct species. The genetic blueprint provides crucial new information on the biology of this unique marsupial and how the Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) evolved to look so similar to the dingo, despite being very distantly related.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 11.12.2017
Shatter-proof mobile phone screens a step closer with ANU research
An international study on glass led by ANU and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris in France could lead to the development of shatter-proof mobile phone screens. Lead researcher Dr Charles Le Losq from ANU said the new knowledge, based on experiments and computer modelling, could be used to alter the structure of glass to improve resistance to fractures.
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