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Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.12.2017
Decades of increased burning deplete soil carbon
Long-term effects of repeated fires on soils found to have significant impacts on carbon storage not previously considered in global greenhouse gas estimates. Frequent burning over decades reduces the amount of carbon and nitrogen stored in soils of savanna grasslands and broadleaf forests, in part because reduced plant growth means less carbon being drawn out of the atmosphere and stored in plant matter.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.12.2017
Deep brain waves occur more often during navigation and memory formation
Deep brain waves occur more often during navigation and memory formation
FINDINGS UCLA neuroscientists are the first to show that rhythmic waves in the brain called theta oscillations happen more often when someone is navigating an unfamiliar environment, and that the more quickly a person moves, the more theta oscillations take place — presumably to process incoming information faster.

Environment - 11.12.2017
Cascade utilisation is also positive for wood
Cascade utilisation is also positive for wood
Research news Another ten years - that is approximately how long sustainable forestry will be able to satisfy the continuously growing demand for wood. In Germany and Europe, new concepts are therefore being discussed for more responsible and efficient industrial use of the renewable, but still limited wood resources.

Health - Pharmacology - 11.12.2017
Identifies how 3D printed metals can be both strong and ductile
Less than one per cent of UK children born with congenital heart disease are enrolled in clinical trials looking to improve treatments, research funded by the British Heart Foundation and led by the University of Birmingham and Birmingham Children's Hospital has found. The study, published in the European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery today, is the first systematic review of its kind into clinical trials in children's heart surgery.

Environment - 11.12.2017
UCL indexes natural disasters
Research UCL - 10 December, International Climate Day - press release 2017: fewer disasters but more cost damages, reports researchers of University of Louvain (UCL) EMDAT is an international referen

Physics - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Clothes make the woman: less empathy towards women showing more skin
Sexualized representations, especially the emphasis of secondary sexual characteristics, can change the way we perceive an individual. An international team of researchers led by Giorgia Silani from the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Vienna has shown that empathic feelings and brain responses are reduced when we observe the emotions of sexualized women.

Health - Pharmacology - 11.12.2017
Liver Cancer: Lipid Synthesis Promotes Tumor Formation
Liver Cancer: Lipid Synthesis Promotes Tumor Formation
Lipid, also known as fat, is an optimal energy source and an important cell component. Much is required for the rapid and uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel and from the University of Geneva have now discovered that the protein mTOR stimulates the production of lipids in liver tumors to satisfy the increased nutrient turnover and energy needs of cancer cells among other functions.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 11.12.2017
Reductions in individual plant growth sometimes boost community resilience
ANN ARBOR-In sports, sometimes a player has to take one for the team. The same appears to be true in the plant world, where reduced individual growth can benefit the broader community. The findings from the University of Michigan's Paul Glaum and André Kessler of Cornell University help explain the persistence of some plant communities when theory predicts they should go extinct.

Psychology - History / Archeology - 10.12.2017
Industrial Revolution left a damaging psychological ’imprint’ on today’s populations
Study finds people in areas historically reliant on coal-based industries have more 'negative' personality traits. Psychologists suggest this cognitive die may well have been cast at the dawn of the industrial age.

Psychology - History / Archeology - 10.12.2017
Industrial Revolution: damaging psychological ’imprint’ persists in today’s populations
Study finds people in areas historically reliant on coal-based industries have more 'negative' personality traits. Psychologists suggest this cognitive die may well have been cast at the dawn of the industrial age.

Computer Science - Mathematics - 10.12.2017
Reading a neural network's mind
Reading a neural network’s mind
Neural networks , which learn to perform computational tasks by analyzing huge sets of training data, have been responsible for the most impressive recent advances in artificial intelligence, including speech-recognition and automatic-translation systems. During training, however, a neural net continually adjusts its internal settings in ways that even its creators can't interpret.

Physics - Chemistry - 09.12.2017
Quantum chains in graphene nanoribbons
Quantum chains in graphene nanoribbons
Empa researchers, together with researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz and other partners, have achieved a breakthrough that could in future be used for precise nanotransistors or - in the distant future - possibly even quantum computers, as the team reports in the current issue of the scientific journal «Nature».

Health - Social Sciences - 08.12.2017
Heart disease linked to depression, loneliness, unemployment and poverty
Heart disease linked to depression, loneliness, unemployment and poverty
Social stress factors such as loneliness and being unemployed, in addition to conventional risks such as smoking and high blood pressure, are associated with higher risks of developing heart disease, according to a new UCL-led study. The study, published by PLOS Medicine this week, analysed cohort data from three eastern European countries and found that heart disease incidence is more likely among people who rarely see their friends and relatives, are single, unemployed, less wealthy, and have depression-like symptoms.

Materials Science - Environment - 08.12.2017
Guanidinium stabilizes perovskite solar cells at 19% efficiency
Guanidinium stabilizes perovskite solar cells at 19% efficiency
Incorporating guanidinium into perovskite solar cells stabilizes their efficiency at 19% for 1000 hours under full-sunlight testing conditions. With the power-conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells plateauing around 25%, perovskites are now ideally placed to become the market's next generation of photovoltaics.

Health - 08.12.2017
Clinical trial reveals risky clot busters do not benefit most patients suffering from deep vein thrombosis
The largest clinical trial ever to test the effects of so-called clot busting drugs and medical devices concludes that such treatments do not prevent the long-term complication of post-thrombotic syndrome A clinical trial almost ten years in the making has revealed that risky, but powerful, clot busting drugs and medical devices do not improve outcomes for patients experiencing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), nor do they prevent the development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) when compared with conventional blood thinning medications.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.12.2017
Depression’s causal mechanisms identified with new method
People with major depressive disorder have alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain systems underlying reward and memory, according to a new study by the University of Warwick. The findings provide clues as to which regions of the brain could be at the root of symptoms, such as reduced happiness and pleasure, or negative memories, in depression.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 08.12.2017
First measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum with HAWC
Understanding the nature and origin of cosmic rays is a major goal of modern astrophysics and one that the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is committed to contribute to. In a study published today in the journal Physical Review D , HAWC announces a measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum in the energy range of 10 to 500 TeV, bridging measurements at higher energy usually performed by ground based detectors and measurements at lower energy that previously had been conducted by detectors on satellites and balloons.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 08.12.2017
CMU Receives $7.5M in Federal BRAIN Initiative Funding
Grants support creation of new technologies for understanding the brain Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University's departments of Biological Sciences and Chemistry , Molecular Biosensor and Imaging Center (MBIC) and Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) have received close to $7.5 million in new funding from the National Institutes of Health through the federal BRAIN Initiative to support innovative research and develop tools that will rapidly advance brain research.

Physics - Chemistry - 08.12.2017
Hot bodies are attractive
Our physical attraction to hot bodies is real, according to UC Berkeley physicists. To be clear, they're not talking about sexual attraction to a "hot” human body. But the researchers have shown that a glowing object actually attracts atoms, contrary to what most people - physicists included - would guess.

Health - Chemistry - 08.12.2017
Molecular beacon signals low oxygen with ultrasound
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Areas of hypoxia, or low oxygen in tissue, are hallmarks of fast-growing cancers and of blockages or narrowing in blood vessels, such as stroke or peripheral artery disease. University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to find hypoxic spots noninvasively in real time.
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