news 2017

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Health - Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
Customers who receive genetic health data not alarmed by results, find information useful
ANN ARBOR'As consumers have been able to learn more about their genetic makeup in recent years through personal genomic testing, one big criticism has been that without someone to interpret it, the health information could be harmful to the receivers. Not so, according to a University of Michigan study that shows that less than 2 percent of customers regret receiving such information, and only about 1 percent say they are harmed by the results.

Environment - 10.01.2017
Rapid Arctic warming has in the past shifted Southern Ocean winds
Rapid Arctic warming has in the past shifted Southern Ocean winds
The global climate is a complex machine in which some pieces are separate yet others are connected. Scientists try to discover the connections to predict what will happen to our climate, especially in a future with more heat-trapping gases. A dramatic pattern in our planet's climate history involves paroxysms in Arctic temperatures.

Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
A glimpse into the workings of the baby brain
A glimpse into the workings of the baby brain
In adults, certain regions of the brain's visual cortex respond preferentially to specific types of input, such as faces or objects - but how and when those preferences arise has long puzzled neuroscientists. One way to help answer that question is to study the brains of very young infants and compare them to adult brains.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.01.2017
In a simple way to great complexity
In a simple way to great complexity
ETH microbiologists have succeeded in showing that nature produces one of the most complex known bioactive natural products in a staggeringly simple way.

Physics - Chemistry - 10.01.2017
"Weak Measurement" with strong results
Nuclear spin tomography is an application in (human) medicine known from medical institutions. The patient absorbs and re-emits electromagnetic radiation in all directions in space. They are detected and 3D images or 2D slice images are reconstructed from that data. Set in the framework of a fundamental science laboratory, the patient is replaced by a quantum object and the electromagnetic radiation by quantum measurement.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.01.2017
Identification of one of the keys allowing entry of Zika virus into brain cells
A team led by Ali Amara, Inserm Research Director at Unit 944, 'Pathology and Molecular Virology' (Inserm/CNRS/Paris Diderot University) describes, in an article published in Cell Reports , the mechanisms that allow Zika virus to infect the cells of the nervous system. The ZIKAlliance project, coordinated by Inserm and funded under the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Commission's Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, is aimed at characterising the fundamental and clinical aspects of infection by Zika virus, an emerging pathogen in America.

History / Archeology - Mathematics - 09.01.2017
What did Big Data find when it analysed 150 years of British history?
What did Big Data find when it analysed 150 years of British history?
What could be learnt about the world if you could read the news from over 100 local newspapers for a period of 150 years' This is what a team of Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers from the University of Bristol have done, together with a social scientist and a historian, who had access to 150 years of British regional newspapers.

Astronomy / Space Science - Continuing Education - 09.01.2017
Spontaneous
Spontaneous "dust traps": the missing link in planet formation discovered
Formation mechanism of spontaneous dust traps(red) in a protoplanetary disk after the formation of a spontaneous dust trap, visible as a bright dust ring. JF Gonzalez? One of the major questions in astronomy today is how do planets form? Until recently, no theory has been able to provide a complete answer.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.01.2017
Mapping the urban underground
Mapping the urban underground
An EPFL researcher has taken a methodology designed to improve underground urban planning around the world one step further.

Health - 09.01.2017
Progesterone may be key to preventing recurrent miscarriage
For women who suffer multiple pregnancy losses in the first four to six weeks of gestation, the hormone progesterone could offer hope for a successful birth, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and their colleagues at University of Illinois at Chicago. The results are published in the current issue of Fertility & Sterility, the international journal of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Crohn's disease risk and prognosis determined by different genes, study finds
Crohn’s disease risk and prognosis determined by different genes, study finds
Researchers have identified a series of genetic variants that affect the severity of Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease - but surprisingly, none of these variants appear to be related to an individual's risk of developing the condition in the first place.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Snails travel far and wide, spreading disease along the way
Snails travel far and wide, spreading disease along the way
Parasite-carrying snails can travel long distances, spreading a deadly disease along the way, according to new research led by UC Berkeley. The study is the first to find genetic evidence for long-distance movements - as far as 30 miles'among snails that pose an important public health threat. Where and how snails move is of concern in many developing countries because freshwater snails transmit schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that affects more than 240 million people worldwide.

Pedagogy - 09.01.2017
Children are more apt to confess misdeeds if they think parents will react positively
ANN ARBOR'Even if they believe they could be punished, older kids are more likely than younger children to view confessing to a misdeed as the right thing to do. And kids of all ages who anticipate that a parent would feel happy about a child's confession'even if they might be punished for the misdeed'are more likely to come forward rather than conceal transgressions, according to a new study from the University of Michigan.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.01.2017
Retroviruses ’almost half a billion years old’
Researchers have found that retroviruses could be half a billion years old - several hundred million years older than previously thought. Retroviruses - the family of viruses that includes HIV - are almost half a billion years old, according to new research by scientists at Oxford University. That's several hundred million years older than previously thought and suggests retroviruses have ancient marine origins, having been with their animal hosts through the evolutionary transition from sea to land.

Electroengineering - 09.01.2017
SEAS research named among discoveries of the year
Science and Nature cite research by Federico Capasso, Jennifer Lewis and Robert Wood  Research done at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) was listed among the breakthroughs of the 2016 by the journals Nature and Science . A flat metalens, developed in the lab of Federico Capasso , the Robert L. Wallace Professor of Applied Physics and Vinton Hayes Senior Research Fellow in Electrical Engineering, was named a runner-up for Science's Breakthrough of the Year 2016 .

Life Sciences - Health - 09.01.2017
Brain impairments in premature infants may begin in the womb
Brain impairments in premature infants may begin in the womb
Even before they are born, premature babies may display alterations in the circuitry of their developing brains, according to a first-of-its kind research study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and their colleagues at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Wayne State University. The findings are published in the journal Scientific Reports, a Nature Publishing Group Journal.

Chemistry - Physics - 09.01.2017
Some catalysts contribute their own oxygen for reactions
Some catalysts contribute their own oxygen for reactions
Chemical reactions that release oxygen in the presence of a catalyst, known as oxygen-evolution reactions, are a crucial part of chemical energy storage processes, including water splitting, electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction, and ammonia production. The kinetics of this type of reaction are generally slow, but compounds called metal oxides can have catalytic activities that vary over several orders of magnitude, with some exhibiting the highest such rates reported to date.

Chemistry - History / Archeology - 09.01.2017
Fast fine art : 19th century painting tricks revealed
Fast fine art : 19th century painting tricks revealed
To paint quickly while creating exceptional texture and volume effects, J. M. W. Turner and other English artists of his generation relied on the development of innovative gels. All the rage in the 19th century—and still in use today—these compounds alter the properties of the oil paints they are combined with.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Breakthrough in MS treatment
In separate clinical trials, a drug called ocrelizumab has been shown to reduce new attacks in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and new symptom progression in primary progressive MS. Three studies conducted by an international team of researchers, which included Amit Bar-Or and Douglas Arnold from the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University, have discovered that ocrelizumab can significantly reduce new attacks in patients with relapsing MS, as well as slow the progression of symptoms caused by primary progressive MS.

Environment - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Species diversity reduces chances of crop failure in algal biofuel systems
ANN ARBOR'When growing algae in outdoor ponds as a next-generation biofuel, a naturally diverse mix of species will help reduce the chance of crop failure, according to a federally funded study by University of Michigan researchers. Algae-derived biocrude oil is being studied as a potential renewable-energy alternative to fossil fuels.