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Environment - Life Sciences - 24.11.2017
Disrupting sensitive soils could worsen climate change
Global warming and land use practices, such as farming, could change the environment for microbes living in the soil and alter the amount of greenhouse gases they release into the atmosphere. Nearly a third of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere annually can be traced back to bacteria living in the soil, where they break down plant and animal matter for energy.

Life Sciences - Health - 23.11.2017
Radiographs of Dolly's skeleton show no signs of abnormal osteoarthritis
PA267/17 Original concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis (OA) in Dolly the sheep are unfounded, say experts at the University of Nottingham and the University of Glasgow. The team, who published last year's Nottingham Dollies research which showed that the 8 year-old Nottingham 'Dollies' had aged normally, have now published a radiographic assessment of the skeletons of Dolly herself, Bonnie (her naturally conceived daughter) and Megan and Morag (the first two animals to be cloned from differentiated cells).

Health - Life Sciences - 23.11.2017
Discovery of potent parasite protein may lead to new therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel conditions
A single protein from a worm parasite may one day offer new therapeutic options for treating inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's or Ulcerative Colitis, that avoid the potentially serious side effects of current immunosuppressant medications. The study, published today , demonstrates the discovery of a distinct new worm protein which mimics a cytokine found in humans, known as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β).

Life Sciences - Health - 22.11.2017
New mechanisms of cell death in neurodegenerative disorders
Researchers at King's College London have discovered new mechanisms of cell death, which may be involved in debilitating neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This novel research, published today in Current Biology , could lead to new therapeutic approaches for treating or delaying the progression of neurodegenerative conditions that are currently incurable, if the findings are expanded.

Life Sciences - Health - 22.11.2017
Alzheimer's Tau protein forms toxic complexes with cell membranes
Alzheimer's disease is caused by tangles in the brain made up of malfunctioning aggregated Tau proteins. Scientists at EPFL have discovered a new toxic form of Tau that forms as a result of its interaction with cell membranes. The research is published and provides novel insights into possible mechanisms by which this protein moves in the brain and kills neurons.

Life Sciences - Electroengineering - 22.11.2017
Neuroscientists Construct First Whole-brain Map Showing Electrical Connections Key to Forming Memories
Neuroscientists Construct First Whole-brain Map Showing Electrical Connections Key to Forming Memories
A team of neuroscientists at the University of Pennsylvania has constructed the first whole-brain map of electrical connectivity in the brain based on data from nearly 300 neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted directly on the brain. The researchers found that low-frequency rhythms of brain activity, when brain waves move up and down slowly, primarily drive communication between the frontal, temporal and medial temporal lobes, key brain regions that engage during memory processing.

Health - Life Sciences - 22.11.2017
Gastric acid suppressant lansoprazole may target tuberculosis
Gastric acid suppressant lansoprazole may target tuberculosis
A cheap and widely used drug, used to treat conditions such as heartburn, gastritis and ulcers, could work against the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB), according to new research from UCL and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. The study, published today in PLOS Medicine , found that people who used lansoprazole, as opposed to similar drugs omeprazole or pantoprazole, were a third less likely to develop TB.

Life Sciences - Art and Design - 22.11.2017
Do birdsong and human speech share biological roots?
Do songbirds and humans have common biological hardwiring that shapes how they produce and perceive sounds? Scientists who study birdsong have been intrigued for some time by the possibility that human speech and music may be rooted in biological processes shared across a variety of animals. Now, research by McGill University biologists provides new evidence to support this idea.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.11.2017
Atopic eczema: one size does not fit all
Atopic eczema: one size does not fit all
Researchers from the UK and Netherlands have identified five distinct subgroups of eczema, a finding that helps explain how the condition can affect people at different stages of their lives. Doctors and patients have long known that the itchy skin condition can affect people in many different ways.

Life Sciences - Art and Design - 21.11.2017
Pitch imperfect? How the brain decodes pitch may improve cochlear implants
Pitch imperfect? How the brain decodes pitch may improve cochlear implants
Picture yourself with a friend in a crowded restaurant. The din of other diners, the clattering of dishes, the muffled notes of background music, the voice of your friend, not to mention your own - all compete for your brain's attention. For many people, the brain can automatically distinguish the noises, identifying the sources and recognizing what they "say” and mean thanks to, among other features of sound, pitch.

Life Sciences - 21.11.2017
Twisted sex allows mirror-image snails to mate face-to-face, research finds
PA 268/17 A study led by the University of Nottingham has found that differently-coiled types of Japanese land snails should in fact be considered a single species, because - against all odds - they are sometimes able to mate, a result which has implications for the classification of other snails. Although most snails have a right-handed spiralling shell, rare 'mirror-image' individuals have a shell that coils to the left.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 20.11.2017
Cholesterol helps flu virus escape through host cell's membrane
Cholesterol helps flu virus escape through host cell’s membrane
After a flu virus infects a host cell and hijacks its inner workings to create copies of itself, these copies gather into viral buds that break free from the host cell to infect again. A new study from MIT now provides the clearest picture yet of how the buds are pinched off from the host cell membrane.

Environment - Life Sciences - 20.11.2017
How our forests are adapting to climate change
How our forests are adapting to climate change
How do trees adjust to the effects of global warming? EPFL researchers have studied how beech and spruce trees - two of the most common plant species in Europe - react to changing temperatures. And they discovered that the amount of moisture in the air plays a decisive role. Rising temperatures, increasingly intense rainfall and extended periods of drought are some of the known effects of climate change.

Health - Life Sciences - 20.11.2017
Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs
Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs
Doctors have many drugs available to treat multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. However, there is no way to predict, by genetic markers or other means, how a patient will respond to a particular drug. This can lead to months of treatment with a drug that isn't working. Researchers at MIT have now shown that they can use a new type of measurement to predict how drugs will affect cancer cells taken from multiple-myeloma patients.

Environment - Life Sciences - 17.11.2017
Plants release more carbon dioxide into atmosphere than expected
The study shows that as global temperatures increase, the amount of carbon dioxide released through plant respiration will increase significantly. A new study involving ANU and international collaborators has found plants release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through respiration than expected, and the problem will worsen with climate change.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 17.11.2017
Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity
Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study in mice at the University of Illinois. Chemists have used such carefully crafted light beams, called coherent control, to regulate chemical reactions, but this study is the first demonstration of using them to control function in a living cell.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.11.2017
Improved method of engineering T-cells to attack cancer
Researchers at Cardiff University have found a way to boost the cancer-destroying ability of the immune system's T-cells, offering new hope in the fight against a wide range of cancers. Using CRISPR genome editing, the team took the genetic engineering of killer T-cells one step further by removing their non-cancer specific receptors and replacing them with ones that would recognise specific cancer cells and destroy them.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.11.2017
Detailed View of Immune Proteins Could Lead to New Pathogen-Defense Strategies
Shown is a structure of the first three subunits of an inflammasome, which consists of the NAIP5 and NLRC4 immune proteins, captured using cryo-electron microscopy. The NAIP5 subunit of the inflammasome is bound to flagellin (shown in light purple), a protein that is part of the flagellum some bacteria use to move around.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.11.2017
Dolphin mouths house ’dark matter of the biological world’
Studying the bacteria found in the mouths of dolphins is giving researchers insight into dolphin health and the unique nature of marine mammals in general. National Marine Mammal Foundation Researchers have identified two deep lineages of bacteria that have never been characterized before - and they found them in a dolphin's toothy grin.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 16.11.2017
Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors
Profs. Susan Kidwell and David Jablonski with the Jablonskipora kidwellae fossil, a tiny marine creature named after them. Lurking in oceans, rivers and lakes around the world are tiny, ancient animals known to few people. Bryozoans, tiny marine creatures that live in colonies, are "living fossils"-their lineage goes back to the time when multi-celled life was a newfangled concept.
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