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Life Sciences - 25.01.2017
Sizing up spaces by ear
Sizing up spaces by ear
Humans can be trained to use echolocation to estimate the sizes of enclosed spaces. LMU researchers now show that the learning process involves close coordination between sensory and motor cortex. In principle, humans need not rely solely on vision for orientation. Some blind persons make use of self-generated sounds to estimate their position and orientation in an enclosed space relative to reflecting surfaces.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.01.2017
Tiny exports signal big shifts in cancer tissue, researchers find
Tiny exports signal big shifts in cancer tissue, researchers find
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Microscopic shifts in metabolism and increases in tiny transport vesicles out of tumor cells preface larger changes to the tumor environment and could prepare the way for cancerous cells to spread and metastasize, University of Illinois researchers report. They saw cancer-causing biological events at both the molecular and tissue scales as they happened, imaging the cells with precise wavelengths of light - no chemicals, dyes or genetic manipulation needed.

Life Sciences - 25.01.2017
Memory limits give rise to open-ended language abilities
A hallmark of human language is our ability to produce and understand an infinite number of different sentences. This unique open-ended productivity is normally explained in terms of 'structural reuse'; sentences are constructed from reusable parts such as phrases. But how languages come to be composed of reusable parts in the first place is a question that has long puzzled researchers in the language sciences.

Life Sciences - Health - 25.01.2017
HIV breaches macrophage defences, could be step towards cure
HIV breaches macrophage defences, could be step towards cure
A team led by UCL researchers has identified how HIV is able to infect macrophages, a type of white blood cell integral to the immune system, despite the presence of a protective protein. They discovered a treatment that can maintain macrophage defences which could be a key part of the puzzle of reaching a complete cure for HIV/AIDS.

Life Sciences - Environment - 25.01.2017
Early onset of winter triggers evolution towards smaller snow voles in Graubünden
Early onset of winter triggers evolution towards smaller snow voles in Graubünden
Adaptive evolution, i.e. genetic change via natural selection, plays a central role in how plant and animal populations guarantee their long-term survival. Although this process is well understood in breeding conditions and in the lab, it is still largely unclear how often and how rapidly it takes place under natural conditions.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.01.2017
Deprivation: a decisive factor in obesity
Deprivation: a decisive factor in obesity
A joint study involving Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) and the Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) shows that people with a genetic predisposition to obesity are more likely to develop the condition if they find themselves in a situation of deprivation. The city of Lausanne was used as a test site by the researchers.

Life Sciences - Health - 25.01.2017
Stimulating the brain with electricity may reduce bulimia symptoms
Key symptoms of bulimia nervosa, including the urge to binge eat and restrict food intake, are reduced by delivering electricity to parts of the brain using non-invasive brain stimulation, according to new research by King's College London. Bulimia is an eating disorder characterised by a vicious cycle of repeated bouts of distressing binge eating and inappropriate attempts to compensate for overeating through vomiting, extreme dieting, or the misuse of different medicines.

Life Sciences - Health - 25.01.2017
Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure
Personality traits linked to differences in brain structure
Our personality may be shaped by how our brain works, but in fact the shape of our brain can itself provide surprising clues about how we behave - and our risk of developing mental health disorders - suggests a study published today.

Life Sciences - Health - 24.01.2017
A brain wide chemical signal that enhances memory
A brain wide chemical signal that enhances memory
How does heightened attention improve our mental capacity? This is the question tackled by new research published today in the journal Cell Reports, which reveals a chemical signal released across the brain in response to attention demanding or arousing situations. The new discoveries indicate how current drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's, designed to boost this chemical signal, counter the symptoms of dementia.

Health - Life Sciences - 24.01.2017
Combination therapy for glioblastoma shows promising results in early-stage research
FINDINGS UCLA researchers have discovered that combining a vaccine developed at UCLA with other experimental therapies and FDA-approved treatments shows promise for reducing the size of advanced brain tumors. The immunotherapy, which is specifically intended to treat brain tumors, is called autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccination.

Life Sciences - 24.01.2017
Even wasps make trade deals
Even wasps make trade deals
Scientists discover even wasps make trade deals Wasps have trading partners and compete for the 'best trade deals', according to scientists from the University of Sussex. In the study, the team from the University's School of Life Sciences looked at how the economic rule of 'supply and demand' applies to populations of paper wasps - in which 'helper wasps' raise the offspring of dominant breeders in small social groups in return for belonging in the nest.

Life Sciences - 24.01.2017
Fixating on Faces
Fixating on Faces
When we are walking down a crowded street, our brains are constantly active, processing a myriad of visual stimuli. Faces are particularly important social stimuli, and, indeed, the human brain has networks of neurons dedicated to processing faces. These cells process social information such as whether individual faces in the crowd are happy, threatening, familiar, or novel.

Life Sciences - Health - 24.01.2017
Scientists get best view yet of cancer-causing virus HPV
C shows the surface rendered 3D map of HPV16 and D'shows the 3D map of HPV16 heparin complex. Color bar indicates distance of area from the center of the particle. HERSHEY, Pa. New details of the structure of the human papillomavirus (HPV) may lead to better vaccines and HPV anti-viral medications, according to studies led by a Penn State College of Medicine researcher.

Life Sciences - Health - 24.01.2017
Gene variants may help personalize treatment for opioid addiction
Gene variants may help personalize treatment for opioid addiction
Yale researchers have discovered a genetic variant that may assist in personalizing treatment of opioid addiction. The results of their genome-wide association study were published Jan. 24 in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. The variant helped identify African Americans who might need higher doses of methadone - the most effective treatment for those dependent upon heroin or prescription painkillers.

Life Sciences - Health - 23.01.2017
Hormone can enhance brain activity associated with love and sex
Hormone can enhance brain activity associated with love and sex
The hormone kisspeptin can enhance activity in brain regions associated with sexual arousal and romantic love, according to new research. The scientists behind the early-stage study, from Imperial College London, are now keen to explore whether kisspeptin could play a part in treating some psychosexual disorders - sexual problems which are psychological in origin, and commonly occur in patients with infertility.

Life Sciences - Environment - 23.01.2017
Study of microbes gives new insight into Earth’s geology and carbon cycles
Tiny microbes play a big role in cycling carbon and other key elements through our air, water, soil and sediment. Not only do microbes capture and release carbon, contributing to a cycle that is central to life on Earth, they also release compounds that can change existing minerals and form new ones'in turn shaping the geology of the world around us.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.01.2017
Breast cancer drugs stop working when tumours 'make their own fuel'
Breast cancer drugs stop working when tumours 'make their own fuel’
Scientists have discovered why a type of breast cancer drug stops working in some patients. The early-stage findings , from an international team led by Imperial College London and the European Institute of Oncology in Milan , reveal some breast tumours evolve to make their own 'fuel supply', rendering treatments powerless.

Health - Life Sciences - 23.01.2017
What makes drug for ulcerative colitis tick
ANN ARBOR'For approximately 70 years, physicians have used a medication containing the active agent mesalamine to treat ulcerative colitis, but little was known about how the drug targeted the inflammatory bowel disease. Now, a group of University of Michigan researchers have identified one of the ways by which mesalamine works.

Life Sciences - 23.01.2017
How plant cells regulate growth shown for the first time
How plant cells regulate growth shown for the first time
Researchers have managed to show how the cells in a plant, a multicellular organism, determine their size and regulate their growth over time. The findings overturn previous theories in the field and are potentially significant for the future of agriculture and forestry - as it reveals more about one of the factors which determine the size of plants and fruits.

Life Sciences - 23.01.2017
Transplanted neurons incorporated into a stroke-injured rat brain
Transplanted neurons incorporated into a stroke-injured rat brain
Today, a stroke usually leads to permanent disability - but in the future, the stroke-injured brain could be reparable by replacing dead cells with new, healthy neurons, using transplantation. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have taken a step in that direction by showing that some neurons transplanted into the brains of stroke-injured rats were incorporated and responded correctly when the rat's muzzle and paws were touched.