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Health - Life Sciences - 11.01.2017
A surprise advance in the treatment of adult cancers
Researchers at the RI-MUHC have made a discovery that could improve care for about 15% of patients with head and neck cancer linked to alcohol and tobacco use A team of researchers at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) has found an epigenetic modification that might be the cause of 15% of adult cancers of the throat linked to alcohol and tobacco use.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.01.2017
Slo-mo unwrapping of nucleosomal DNA probes protein’s role
Using X-rays to visualize DNA (dark gray) and fluorescence to monitor the histone proteins (yellow and cyan), Cornell researchers led by professor and director of applied and engineering physics Lois Pollack found that the release of histone proteins is guided by unwrapping DNA. Nucleosomes are tightly packed bunches of DNA and protein which, when linked together as chromatin, form each of the 46 chromosomes found in human cells.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 11.01.2017
The best way to include fossils in the 'tree of life'
The best way to include fossils in the ’tree of life’
A team of scientists from the University of Bristol has suggested that we need to use a fresh approach to analyse relationships in the fossil record to show how all living and extinct species are related in the 'tree of life'. The researchers from the Bristol Palaeobiology Group , part of the School of Earth Sciences , studied the best way to understand relationships of extinct animals to other extinct species as well as those alive today.

Life Sciences - 11.01.2017
Bait and switch: UCLA study finds fish fraud runs rampant
Bait and switch: UCLA study finds fish fraud runs rampant
Whether to turn a profit or skirt environmental regulations, half the time what's on the menu at L.A. sushi restaurants differs from what's on your plate Alison Hewitt Next time you go out for sushi in Los Angeles, don't bother ordering halibut. Chances are it's not halibut at all. A new study from researchers at UCLA and Loyola Marymount University checked the DNA of fish ordered at 26 Los Angeles sushi restaurants from 2012 through 2015, and found that 47 percent of sushi was mislabeled.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.01.2017
Baboons produce vocalizations comparable to vowels
Baboons produce vocalizations comparable to vowels
Baboons produce vocalizations comparable to vowels. This is what has been demonstrated by an international team coordinated by researchers from the Gipsa-Lab (CNRS/Grenoble INP/Grenoble Alpes University), the Laboratory of Cognitive Psychology (CNRS/AMU), and the Laboratory of Anatomy at the University of Montpellier, using acoustic analyses of vocalizations coupled with an anatomical study of the tongue muscles and the modeling of the acoustic potential of the vocal tract in monkeys.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
High-sugar diet programmes a short lifespan in flies
High-sugar diet programmes a short lifespan in flies
Flies with a history of eating a high sugar diet live shorter lives, even after their diet improves. This is because the unhealthy diet drives long-term reprogramming of gene expression, according to a UCL-led team of researchers. The study, published today in Cell Reports , discovered that the action of a gene called FOXO is inhibited in flies given a high sugar diet in early life, causing long-term effects.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
Autism biomarker seen as boon for new treatments
FINDINGS Researchers at the UCLA Center for Autism Research and Treatment have identified a signature brain-wave pattern for children with autism spectrum disorder related to a genetic condition known as Dup15q syndrome. The research team noted that this signature is among the first quantitative biomarkers identified in electroencephalogram tests discovered for any syndrome highly associated with autism spectrum disorder.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
Customers who receive genetic health data not alarmed by results, find information useful
ANN ARBOR'As consumers have been able to learn more about their genetic makeup in recent years through personal genomic testing, one big criticism has been that without someone to interpret it, the health information could be harmful to the receivers. Not so, according to a University of Michigan study that shows that less than 2 percent of customers regret receiving such information, and only about 1 percent say they are harmed by the results.

Life Sciences - 10.01.2017
A glimpse into the workings of the baby brain
A glimpse into the workings of the baby brain
In adults, certain regions of the brain's visual cortex respond preferentially to specific types of input, such as faces or objects - but how and when those preferences arise has long puzzled neuroscientists. One way to help answer that question is to study the brains of very young infants and compare them to adult brains.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.01.2017
In a simple way to great complexity
In a simple way to great complexity
ETH microbiologists have succeeded in showing that nature produces one of the most complex known bioactive natural products in a staggeringly simple way.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.01.2017
Identification of one of the keys allowing entry of Zika virus into brain cells
A team led by Ali Amara, Inserm Research Director at Unit 944, 'Pathology and Molecular Virology' (Inserm/CNRS/Paris Diderot University) describes, in an article published in Cell Reports , the mechanisms that allow Zika virus to infect the cells of the nervous system. The ZIKAlliance project, coordinated by Inserm and funded under the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Commission's Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, is aimed at characterising the fundamental and clinical aspects of infection by Zika virus, an emerging pathogen in America.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Crohn's disease risk and prognosis determined by different genes, study finds
Crohn’s disease risk and prognosis determined by different genes, study finds
Researchers have identified a series of genetic variants that affect the severity of Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disease - but surprisingly, none of these variants appear to be related to an individual's risk of developing the condition in the first place.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Snails travel far and wide, spreading disease along the way
Snails travel far and wide, spreading disease along the way
Parasite-carrying snails can travel long distances, spreading a deadly disease along the way, according to new research led by UC Berkeley. The study is the first to find genetic evidence for long-distance movements - as far as 30 miles'among snails that pose an important public health threat. Where and how snails move is of concern in many developing countries because freshwater snails transmit schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that affects more than 240 million people worldwide.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.01.2017
Retroviruses ’almost half a billion years old’
Researchers have found that retroviruses could be half a billion years old - several hundred million years older than previously thought. Retroviruses - the family of viruses that includes HIV - are almost half a billion years old, according to new research by scientists at Oxford University. That's several hundred million years older than previously thought and suggests retroviruses have ancient marine origins, having been with their animal hosts through the evolutionary transition from sea to land.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.01.2017
Brain impairments in premature infants may begin in the womb
Brain impairments in premature infants may begin in the womb
Even before they are born, premature babies may display alterations in the circuitry of their developing brains, according to a first-of-its kind research study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and their colleagues at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Wayne State University. The findings are published in the journal Scientific Reports, a Nature Publishing Group Journal.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Breakthrough in MS treatment
In separate clinical trials, a drug called ocrelizumab has been shown to reduce new attacks in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and new symptom progression in primary progressive MS. Three studies conducted by an international team of researchers, which included Amit Bar-Or and Douglas Arnold from the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital of McGill University, have discovered that ocrelizumab can significantly reduce new attacks in patients with relapsing MS, as well as slow the progression of symptoms caused by primary progressive MS.

Environment - Life Sciences - 09.01.2017
Species diversity reduces chances of crop failure in algal biofuel systems
ANN ARBOR'When growing algae in outdoor ponds as a next-generation biofuel, a naturally diverse mix of species will help reduce the chance of crop failure, according to a federally funded study by University of Michigan researchers. Algae-derived biocrude oil is being studied as a potential renewable-energy alternative to fossil fuels.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 09.01.2017
Sea shells are as unique as fingerprints
Sea shells are as unique as fingerprints
University of Queensland scientists have solved a riddle that has puzzled beach-goers and collectors around the world - why are conch shell colours and patterns so diverse? The researchers examined the molecular underpinnings behind the array of shell patterns. UQ School of Biological Sciences researcher Professor Bernie Degnan said the team investigated the complex gene networks that controlled the secretions of chemicals and proteins in molluscs to create shells.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 09.01.2017
Sea shells are as unique as fingerprints
Sea shells are as unique as fingerprints
University of Queensland scientists have solved a riddle that has puzzled beach-goers and collectors around the world - why are conch shell colours and patterns so diverse? The researchers examined the molecular underpinnings behind the array of shell patterns. UQ School of Biological Sciences researcher Professor Bernie Degnan said the team investigated the complex gene networks that controlled the secretions of chemicals and proteins in molluscs to create shells.

Life Sciences - Physics - 08.01.2017
Sneak peek into the nanoworld of brain cells
Sneak peek into the nanoworld of brain cells
A University of Queensland team is among the first in neuroscience to see the brain's tiniest molecules in action and plot their movements. Professor Fred Meunier's laboratory at the Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research at the Queensland Brain Institute has developed a breakthrough technique in super-resolution microscopy.
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