news 2018


Earth Sciences

Results 21 - 40 of 185.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 16.11.2018
App to the Moon
App to the Moon
ESA Human Spaceflight Caves 16 November 2018 It is magnificently quiet at the rim of the lunar crater. Nearly 400 000 km away from Earth, the silence and vastness of the unknown terrain can be overwhelming. Yet our moonwalker does not feel alone. Tablet on his wrist, the astronaut snaps a 360 degree picture and marks it with some arrows to highlight geologically interesting areas.

History / Archeology - Earth Sciences - 16.11.2018
Laser technology uncovers medieval secrets locked in Alpine ice core
A new study has found ground-breaking evidence from an ice core in the Swiss-Italian Alps that proves the 7 th century switch from gold to silver currencies in western Europe actually occurred a quarter of a century earlier than previously thought. The findings, from the University of Nottingham and which are published in the journal Antiquity , will have major implications on the history of the European monetary system, and what we thought we knew about trade and the economy during this period.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 07.11.2018
Opinion: Methods for protecting England's coastal communities 'not fit for purpose'
Opinion: Methods for protecting England’s coastal communities ’not fit for purpose’
Professor Tom Spencer from Cambridge's Department of Geography and Professor Gerd Masselink from the University of Plymouth say evidence suggests there should be far stricter controls on coastal developments. In October 2018, a stark report suggested that current methods being used to protect England's coastal communities are 'not fit for purpose'.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 07.11.2018
ESA's gravity-mapper reveals relics of ancient continents under Antarctic ice
ESA’s gravity-mapper reveals relics of ancient continents under Antarctic ice
ESA Observing the Earth GOCE It was five years ago this month that ESA's GOCE gravity-mapping satellite finally gave way to gravity, but its results are still yielding buried treasure - giving a new view of the remnants of lost continents hidden deep under the ice sheet of Antarctica. A research team from Germany's Kiel University and the British Antarctic Survey published their latest GOCE-based findings this week in the journal Scientific Reports .

Earth Sciences - Environment - 07.11.2018
Launch of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) : Earth System Science enters the Big Data era
Wednesday 7 November 2018 officially launches the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) for the pooling and streamlining of data and services of all kinds for the study of our planet. This initiative, for which the CNRS and BRGM are working together with the French Ministry for Higher Education, Research and Innovation, in part aims to better understand the mechanisms behind earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 05.11.2018
Three Bristol academics win Philip Leverhulme Prizes
Three Bristol academics win Philip Leverhulme Prizes
Dr Juliet Biggs, Dr Claire Haworth and Dr John Russo have each been awarded a Philip Leverhulme Prize for their research. The Prize is awarded for 'achievement of outstanding researchers whose work has already attracted international recognition and whose future career is exceptionally promising'. Dr Juliet Biggs (School of Earth Sciences) Dr Biggs studies active volcanoes and earthquakes to examine the physics of plate boundary development.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 31.10.2018
Oceans Have Absorbed 60 Percent More Heat Than Previously Thought
Team led by Scripps and Princeton University scientists use oxygen, carbon dioxide measurements to infer ocean temperature increase For each of the past 25 years, oceans have absorbed an amount of heat energy that is 150 times the energy humans produce as electricity annually, according to a study led by researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and Princeton University.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 29.10.2018
Alterations to seabed raise fears for future
The ocean floor as we know it is dissolving rapidly as a result of human activity. Normally the deep sea bottom is a chalky white. It's composed, to a large extent, of the mineral calcite (CaCO3) formed from the skeletons and shells of many planktonic organisms and corals. The seafloor plays a crucial role in controlling the degree of ocean acidification.

Earth Sciences - 26.10.2018
Location of large 'mystery' source of banned ozone depleting substance uncovered
Location of large ‘mystery’ source of banned ozone depleting substance uncovered
26 October 2018 Researchers from the University of Bristol have found significant ongoing emissions of a potent ozone-depleting substance from eastern China. The compound, carbon tetrachloride, contributes to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer, which protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Earth Sciences - 25.10.2018
The formation of large meteorite craters is unraveled
About 66 million years ago, a meteorite hit the Earth of the Yucatan Peninsula in what is now Mexico. This event triggered a mass extinction that eradicated approximately 75 percent of all species and ended the era of dinosaurs. Like Ulrich Riller of the Institute of Geology of the University of Hamburg and co-workers report in "Nature", the hitherto mysterious formation of the crater and its mountaneous peak ring.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 24.10.2018
Climate change: US desert areas to become even drier
Climate change: US desert areas to become even drier
350,000 years of climate history hidden in Devils Hole cave: Geologists from the University of Innsbruck study rainfall patterns in the distant past to better understand how deserts in the southwest United States will be impacted by future climate change. Beneath the Amargosa desert of the southwest United States lies a hidden gem for climate research.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 19.10.2018
Minerals of the world, unite!
Minerals of the world, unite!
ESA Human Spaceflight Astronauts International Space Station Research Exploration 19 October 2018 Imagine you are on Mars and you stumble upon an interesting rock. The colours, the shape of the crystals and the place where you find it all tell you: there is more to it than meets the eye. Tool in hand, you analyse how light scatters through it.

Earth Sciences - 18.10.2018
Researchers confirm Earth's inner core is solid
Researchers confirm Earth’s inner core is solid
A new study by researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) could help us understand how our planet was formed. Associate Professor Hrvoje Tkal'i? and PhD Scholar Than-Son Ph'm are confident they now have direct proof the earth's inner core is solid. They came up with a way to detect shear waves, or "J waves" in the inner core - a type of wave which can only travel through solid objects.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 15.10.2018
Missing piece in glacier melt predictions
A new method for observing water within ice has revealed stored meltwater that may explain the complex flow behavior of some Greenland glaciers, an important component for predicting sea-level rise in a changing climate. Stanford scientists have revealed the presence of water stored within a glacier in Greenland, where the rapidly changing ice sheet is a major contributor to the sea-level rise North America will experience in the next 100 years.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 12.10.2018
Does climate vary more from century to century when it is warmer?
Century-scale climate variability was enhanced when the Earth was warmer during the Last Interglacial period (129-116 thousand years ago) compared to the current interglacial (the last 11,700 years), according to a new UCL-led study. The findings, published today and funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Australian Research Council (ARC), reveal that the Last Interglacial period was punctuated by a series of century-scale arid events in southern Europe and cold water-mass expansions in the North Atlantic.

Earth Sciences - 11.10.2018
Sediment bypass tunnels and biodiversity
Sediment bypass tunnels and biodiversity
Mountain rivers swollen by heavy rainfall deposit large amounts of sediment in reservoirs. To prevent the loss of storage capacity, some reservoirs are equipped with bypass tunnels which convey sediment-laden waters to downstream reaches. The fact that such tunnels offer ecological benefits as well as economic advantages was shown, for example, by a study carried out on the Solis reservoir in Graubünden.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 08.10.2018
Icy warning for space missions to Jupiter's moon
Icy warning for space missions to Jupiter’s moon
A location often earmarked as a potential habitat for extra-terrestrial life could prove to be a tricky place for spacecraft to land, new research has revealed. A team led by scientists from Cardiff University has predicted that fields of sharp ice growing to almost 15 metres tall could be scattered across the equatorial regions of Jupiter's moon, Europa.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 26.09.2018
Researchers map susceptibility to man-made earthquakes
Stanford researchers have mapped local susceptibility to man-made earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas. The new model incorporates physical properties of the Earth's subsurface and forecasts a decline in potentially damaging shaking through 2020. Earthquakes in Oklahoma and Kansas had been on the rise due to injection of wastewater - a byproduct of oil and gas operations - before regulations started limiting injections.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 26.09.2018
Software finds the best way to stick a Mars landing
Software finds the best way to stick a Mars landing
Program users can tinker with landing and path planning scenarios to identify optimal landing sites for Mars rovers. Selecting a landing site for a rover headed to Mars is a lengthy process that normally involves large committees of scientists and engineers. These committees typically spend several years weighing a mission's science objectives against a vehicle's engineering constraints, to identify sites that are both scientifically interesting and safe to land on.

Earth Sciences - 24.09.2018
Where Water Goes After Fracking is Tied to Earthquake Risk
Where Water Goes After Fracking is Tied to Earthquake Risk
In addition to producing oil and gas, the energy industry produces a lot of water, about 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil on average. New research led by The University of Texas at Austin has found that where the produced water is stored underground influences the risk of induced earthquakes. Beyond supporting the link between water disposal and induced seismicity, the research also describes factors that can help reduce earthquake risk.