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Results 41 - 60 of 185.


Earth Sciences - Computer Science - 21.09.2018
After the Big One: Understanding aftershock risk
Cranes dismantle buildings damaged by the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. (Photo credit: iStock) Geophysicist Gregory Beroza discusses the culprits behind destructive aftershocks and why scientists are harnessing artificial intelligence to gain new insights into earthquake risks. In early September 2018, a powerful earthquake on the island of Hokkaido in northern Japan triggered landslides, toppled buildings, cut power, halted industry , killed more than 40 people and injured hundreds.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 20.09.2018
Experiments using Diamond Anvils Yield New Insight into the Deep Earth
Experiments using Diamond Anvils Yield New Insight into the Deep Earth
Nearly 1,800 miles below the earth's surface, there are large odd structures lurking at the base of the mantle, sitting just above the core. The mantle is a thick layer of hot, mostly plastic rock that surrounds the core; atop the mantle is the thin shell of the earth's crust. On geologic time scales, the mantle behaves like a viscous liquid, with solid elements sinking and rising through its depths.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 19.09.2018
Moderate warming, if sustained, could melt the ’sleeping giant’ of Antarctica
Imperial experts have predicted that sustained Antarctic warming of just 2C could melt the largest ice sheet on earth. New research on Antarctic sediment layers has shown that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), also known as Antarctica's 'sleeping giant', retreated during extended warm periods in the past - when temperatures were like those predicted for this century.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 18.09.2018
An extinction without warning
An extinction without warning
Study finds end-Permian extinction, which wiped out most of Earth's species, was instantaneous in geological time. The most severe mass extinction in Earth's history occurred with almost no early warning signs, according to a new study by scientists at MIT, China, and elsewhere. The end-Permian mass extinction, which took place 251.9 million years ago, killed off more than 96 percent of the planet's marine species and 70 percent of its terrestrial life - a global annihilation that marked the end of the Permian Period.

Paleontology - Earth Sciences - 17.09.2018
Tiny fossils reveal how shrinking was essential for successful evolution
Tiny fossils reveal how shrinking was essential for successful evolution
A new study published today in Nature, using research carried out at the University of Bristol, shows that getting smaller was a key factor contributing to the exceptional evolution of mammals over the last 200 million years. The origin of modern mammals can be traced back more than 200 million years to the age of dinosaurs.

Health - Earth Sciences - 11.09.2018
Protecting against volcanic ash
A first of its kind study, led by Dr Claire Horwell of the Department of Earth Sciences and Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience , has found that industry-certified particle masks are most effective at protecting people from volcanic ash, whilst commonly used surgical masks offer less protection.

Innovation - Earth Sciences - 07.09.2018
'Dragon eggs' hatched to monitor volcanic activity
‘Dragon eggs’ hatched to monitor volcanic activity
The University of Bristol is pioneering the monitoring of volcanic activity by developing a cutting-edge measurement system that can withstand the harsh conditions around the heart of an active volcano. Such extreme, hazardous and unpredictable environments present a very difficult challenge to reliably record volcanic behaviour for analytical models.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 06.09.2018
Volcano under ice sheet suggests thickening of West Antarctic ice is short-term
Volcano under ice sheet suggests thickening of West Antarctic ice is short-term
Administrative affairs Arts and entertainment Buildings and grounds For UW employees Health and medicine Honors and awards Official notices Politics and government UW and the community A region of West Antarctica is behaving differently from most of the continent's ice: A large patch of ice there is thickening, unlike other parts of West Antarctica that are losing ice.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 04.09.2018
Episodic and intense rain caused by ancient global warming
Episodic and intense rain caused by ancient global warming
A new study by scientists at the University of Bristol has shown that ancient global warming was associated with intense rainfall events that had a profound impact on the land and coastal seas. The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), which occurred about 56 Million years ago, is of great interest to climate scientists because it represents a relatively rapid global warming event, with some similarities to the human-induced warming of today.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 31.08.2018
What's 'up' in space?
What’s ’up’ in space?
The International Astronomical Union has agreed on a new reference frame for directions in space. TU Wien played an important role in developing this new frame. In future, when spacecrafts are sent to other planets or when the rotation of planet Earth is studied, a new reference frame will be used. On 30 August, at the General Meeting of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in Vienna, the new international celestial reference frame ICRF3 was adopted, allowing for more precise directional specifications in space.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 27.08.2018
Corals in Deeper Waters Under Stress Too
Coral reefs around the world are threatened by warming ocean temperatures, a major driver of coral bleaching. Scientists routinely use sea-surface temperature data collected by satellites to predict the temperature-driven stress on reef communities, but new research shows that surface measurements alone may not accurately predict the full extent of thermal stress on deeper corals.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 23.08.2018
Earthquake research could improve seismic forecasts
Earthquake research could improve seismic forecasts
The timing and size of three deadly earthquakes that struck Italy in 2016 may have been pre-determined, according to new research that could improve future earthquake forecasts. A joint British-Italian team of geologists and seismologists have shown that the clustering of the three quakes might have been caused by the arrangement of a cross-cutting network of underground faults.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 22.08.2018
Getting to the root of plant evolution
Despite plants and vegetation being key to the Earth's ecosystem, little is known about the origin of their roots. However in new research that sheds light on how roots have evolved. The findings suggest that plant roots have evolved more than once, and that the characteristics of roots developed in a step-wise manner - with the central root organ evolving first.

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 22.08.2018
Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo caused in part by Indonesian volcanic eruption
Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo caused in part by Indonesian volcanic eruption
Electrically charged volcanic ash short-circuited Earth's atmosphere in 1815, causing global poor weather and Napoleon's defeat, says new research. Historians know that rainy and muddy conditions helped the Allied army defeat the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo. The June 1815 event changed the course of European history.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 20.08.2018
Carbon reserves in Central American soils still affected by ancient Mayan deforestation
Deforestation is suspected to have contributed to the mysterious collapse of Mayan civilization more than 1,000 years ago. A new study shows that the forest-clearing also decimated carbon reservoirs in the tropical soils of the Yucatan peninsula region long after ancient cities were abandoned and the forests grew back.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 16.08.2018
Coral bleaching on Great Barrier Reef is on the rise
Coral bleaching on Great Barrier Reef is on the rise
Coral bleaching across Australia's Great Barrier Reef has been occurring since the late 18 th century, new research shows. Coral bleaching Using cores taken from long-lived corals, scientists show that bleaching events have steadily affected more and more corals, and are happening more frequently than in the past, adding to existing concerns about the future of coral reefs.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 14.08.2018
Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide
Diving robots find Antarctic winter seas exhale surprising amounts of carbon dioxide
Administrative affairs Arts and entertainment Buildings and grounds For UW employees Health and medicine Honors and awards Official notices Politics and government UW and the community More than 100 oceanic floats are now diving and drifting in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica during the peak of winter.

Earth Sciences - 14.08.2018
Mountains in motion
Mountains in motion
The Alps are on the go: The mountain range drifts northwards an average of one-half millimeter every year and rises 1.8 millimeters. However, there are strong regional variances. In order to follow these movements, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have evaluated measurements made by more than 300 GPS antennas over a period of twelve years.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 10.08.2018
Ice sheets of the last ice age seeded the ocean with silica
Ice sheets of the last ice age seeded the ocean with silica
10 August 2018 New research led by glaciologists and isotope geochemists from the University of Bristol has found that melting ice sheets provide the surrounding oceans with the essential nutrient silica. Silica is needed by a group of marine algae (the microscopic plants of the oceans) called diatoms, who use it to build their glassy cell walls (known as frustules).

Earth Sciences - Paleontology - 07.08.2018
New species of rare ancient ’worm’ discovered in fossil hotspot
Scientists have discovered a new species of lobopodian, an ancient relative of modern-day velvet worms, in 430 million-years-old Silurian rocks in Herefordshire, UK. The team, comprising researchers from the universities of Oxford, Yale, Leicester and Manchester, and Imperial College London, has been able to three-dimensionally reconstruct the exceptionally well-preserved fossil using digital technology.