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Results 61 - 80 of 185.


Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 06.08.2018
Size matters: if you are a bubble of volcanic gas
Size matters: if you are a bubble of volcanic gas
The chemical composition of gases emitted from volcanoes - which are used to monitor changes in volcanic activity - can change depending on the size of gas bubbles rising to the surface, and relate to the way in which they erupt. The results , published Geoscience, could be used to improve the forecasting of threats posed by certain volcanoes.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 06.08.2018
Earthquakes can be attenuated by groundwater
Earthquakes can be attenuated by groundwater
Researchers from EPFL and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris have found that the presence of pressurized fluid in surrounding rock can reduce the intensity of earthquakes triggered by underground human activities like geothermal energy production. Around 100,000 earthquakes are recorded worldwide every year, but not all are naturally occurring.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 06.08.2018
Tainted idyll: groundwater over-fertilising lagoon in Spain
Tainted idyll: groundwater over-fertilising lagoon in Spain
Lagoons are valuable natural habitats as well as being good for tourism. In the case of the "Mar Menor" in the Spanish province of Murcia, however, such large quantities of nutrients are entering the unique ecosystem via the groundwater that algal blooms are making swimming impossible. Working together with Eawag, Spanish researchers have been modelling the underground water flows in order to develop better cultivation and water management scenarios.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 31.07.2018
Aims to discover if kidney transplants reverse heart damage in patients with chronic kidney disease
Warming streams and rivers could be disproportionately contributing to the amount of planet-warming greenhouse gases, according to a new study. Many such watercourses with high levels of fine sediment and organic materials building up in their streambeds could be increasing greenhouse gas emissions from rivers, as well as increasing the risk of communicable disease and putting wildlife at risk.

Earth Sciences - 30.07.2018
New research solves a 160 year old mystery about the origin of the vertebrate skeleton
New research solves a 160 year old mystery about the origin of the vertebrate skeleton
Scientists at the University of Manchester and the University of Bristol have used powerful X-rays to peer inside the skeletons of some of our oldest vertebrate relatives, solving a 160-year-old mystery about the origin of our skeletons. Living vertebrates have skeletons built from four different tissue types: bone and cartilage (the main tissues that human skeletons are made from), and dentine and enamel (the tissues from which our teeth are constructed).

Environment - Earth Sciences - 30.07.2018
Ever-increasing CO2 levels could take us back to the tropical climate of Paleogene period
Ever-increasing CO2 levels could take us back to the tropical climate of Paleogene period
A new study led by scientists at the University of Bristol has warned that unless we mitigate current levels of carbon dioxide emissions, Western Europe and New Zealand could revert to the hot tropical climate of the early Paleogene period - 56-48 million years ago. As seen from the ongoing heat wave, the knock-on effects of such extreme warmth include arid land and fires as well as impacts on health and infrastructure.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 30.07.2018
Carbon 'leak' may have warmed the planet for 11,000 years, encouraging human civilisation
Carbon ’leak’ may have warmed the planet for 11,000 years, encouraging human civilisation
The oceans are the planet's most important depository for atmospheric carbon dioxide on time scales of decades to millennia. But the process of locking away greenhouse gas is weakened by activity of the Southern Ocean, so an increase in its activity could explain the mysterious warmth of the past 11,000 years, an international team of researchers reports.

Earth Sciences - 27.07.2018
Deglacial changes in western Atlantic Ocean circulation
Deglacial changes in western Atlantic Ocean circulation
A new study carried out by an international team of researchers, using the chemistry of ocean sediments has highlighted a widespread picture of Atlantic circulation changes associated with rapid climate change in the past. The new integrated dataset, published today , provides new insights into the interactions of melting ice, ocean circulation and climate change, with potential implications for future long-term changes in the Earth systems with global climate change.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.07.2018
Plants play dominant role in landscape formation of coastal areas
Introduction: Dutch and Flemish researchers studied the colonisation by coastal vegetation Coastal vegetation interacts with water flow and the transport of sand and sediment: this interaction plays a key role in the rise of characteristic landscape forms in coastal habitats. Scientists from the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and University of Antwerp ( Global Change Ecology Centre , Research Group Ecosystem Management ) provide more insight in this interaction in their new paper that appeared recently.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.07.2018
Ice age sea-level drops not caused by CO2-level changes
The increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to human activity will contribute to future sea-level rises, but new research has revealed that rapid ice age sea-level drops were not caused by changes in CO2 concentrations. The international study involving ANU found that the climate during the last ice age, which ended tens of thousands of years ago, could flip with smaller, more localised disruptions such as the discharge of huge masses of ice.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.07.2018
Great Barrier Reef reveals rapid changes of ancient glaciers
Graphs of sea levels about the time of the poorly understood Last Glacial Maximum indicated ice sheets were stable before slowly starting to melt but a new Nature paper paints a different picture, which could be bad news for the reef. Graphs of global sea levels around the time of the poorly understood Last Glacial Maximum (27,000 to 20,000 years ago) previously showed stable ice sheets for about 10,000 years before the ice slowly started to melt.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.07.2018
The tropics at tipping point
Global biodiversity is at tipping point and on the verge of collapse, according to a major research collaboration. The team caution that urgent, concerted action is needed to reverse species loss in the tropics and prevent an environmental catastrophe.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 25.07.2018
Mars Express detects liquid water hidden under planet's south pole
Mars Express detects liquid water hidden under planet’s south pole
Radar data collected by ESA's Mars Express point to a pond of liquid water buried under layers of ice and dust in the south polar region of Mars. Evidence for the Red Planet's watery past is prevalent across its surface in the form of vast dried-out river valley networks and gigantic outflow channels clearly imaged by orbiting spacecraft.

Paleontology - Earth Sciences - 25.07.2018
New dinosaur found in the wrong place, at the wrong time
A new dinosaur called Lingwulong shenqi or 'amazing dragon from Lingwu' has been discovered by an Anglo-Chinese team involving UCL. The announcement, published today , reports the surprising discovery of the new dinosaur which roamed the Ningxia Autonomous Region, northwest China, approximately 174 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - Paleontology - 25.07.2018
Creating 'synthetic' fossils in the lab sheds light on fossilisation processes
Creating ’synthetic’ fossils in the lab sheds light on fossilisation processes
A newly published experimental protocol, involving University of Bristol scientists, could change the way fossilisation is studied. In addition to directly studying fossils themselves, experimental treatments of fresh organismal remains can be utilised to study fossilisation. One commonly employed experimental approach is known as 'artificial maturation', where high heat and pressure accelerate the chemical degradation reactions that normally occur over millions of years when a fossil is buried deep underground and exposed to geothermal heat and pressure from overlying sediment.

Chemistry - Earth Sciences - 23.07.2018
Why eastern U.S. air pollution levels are more stagnant in winter
Why eastern U.S. air pollution levels are more stagnant in winter
The air in the United States is much cleaner than even a decade ago. But those improvements have come mainly in summer, the season that used to be the poster child for haze-containing particles that cause asthma, lung cancer and other illnesses. A new study led by the University of Washington shows why winter air pollution levels have remained high, despite overall lower levels of harmful emissions from power plants and vehicles throughout the year.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 23.07.2018
Sculpting to interpret climate change
Sculpting to interpret climate change
An intriguing new exhibition using rocks to represent different aspects and interpretations of climate change will be on display at the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, from Wednesday 25 July. For the past six months, artist and sculptor, Alice Cunningham has been working as an artist-in-residence as part of the School's EarthArt programme which encourages local artists to work with members academics on an art-science collaborative project.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 23.07.2018
Ocean acidification to hit levels not seen in 14 million years
The world's oceans are likely to become more acidic than at any time in the past 14 million years, scientists have found. New research led by Cardiff University has shown that under a 'business-as-usual' scenario of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, ocean acidification is likely to hit unprecedented levels.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 23.07.2018
Widespread groundwater contamination risk from chromium
Natural sources of the toxic form of chromium appear in wells that provide drinking water to a large population in California, offering a new perspective on California's groundwater management challenges. When Erin Brockovich sued a major utility company in the 1990s for contaminating drinking water with hexavalent chromium, a toxic and carcinogenic metal, national attention turned to California.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 20.07.2018
How plants use carbon affects their response to climate change
How plants use carbon affects their response to climate change
Under warmer conditions, plants can take up more carbon dioxide by using carbon more efficiently for growth, shows a new study. Plants take in - or 'fix' - carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Some of the carbon is used for plant growth, and some of it is used in respiration, where the plant breaks down sugars to get energy.