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Environment - Life Sciences - 03.12.2018
Surprising discovery of pollutants in gammarids
Surprising discovery of pollutants in gammarids
The water in Swiss streams is contaminated with numerous micropollutants. However, very little research has been carried out to determine how these trace substances affect organisms in bodies of water. An Eawag research group has been able to show for the first time on a large scale that such trace substances accumulate in gammarids and possibly have a negative effect on them.

Life Sciences - Health - 30.11.2018
Experimental cancer drug shows promise for Parkinson’s
A drug originally developed for prostate cancer may have exciting potential for treating Parkinson's. The study, funded by Parkinson's UK, suggests that the drug, tasquinimod, which is not yet on the market, works by controlling genes that may cause Parkinson's. This happens when the drug interacts with a protein inside brain cells.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
Cracking Open a Cold One with the Flies
Cracking Open a Cold One with the Flies
Crack open a beer outside and it is a safe bet that you will soon be defending it from a few unwelcome drinking buddies. Fruit flies have a knack for appearing whenever someone opens up a can of beer or a bottle of wine, but how do they do it? In a study spanning six years and thousands of experiments, Caltech scientists discovered that fruit flies are attracted to carbon dioxide (CO2), a gas associated with their favorite foods-and some of our favorite beverages.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 29.11.2018
Measuring cancer cell
Measuring cancer cell "fitness" reveals drug susceptibility
Together, cell growth rate and gene expression shed light on why some tumor cells survive treatment. By studying both the physical and genomic features of cancer cells, MIT researchers have come up with a new way to investigate why some cancer cells survive drug treatment while others succumb. Their new approach, which combines measurements of cell mass and growth rate with analysis of a cell's gene expression, could be used to reveal new drug targets that would make cancer treatment more effective.

Health - Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
With these nanoparticles, a simple urine test could diagnose bacterial pneumonia
With these nanoparticles, a simple urine test could diagnose bacterial pneumonia
Results could also indicate whether antibiotics have successfully treated the infection. Pneumonia, a respiratory disease that kills about 50,000 people in the United States every year, can be caused by many different microbes, including bacteria and viruses. Rapid detection of pneumonia is critical for effective treatment, especially in hospital-acquired cases which are often more severe.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
Paris, 29 November 2018 About 75% of amputees exhibit mobility of their phantom limb. Using this information, in collaboration with physicians 1 , researchers from CNRS and Aix-Marseille University have developed a prototype capable of detecting these movements and activating a prosthetic arm. The prosthesis does not require any surgery and patients do not need training.

Life Sciences - Health - 29.11.2018
Understanding Down syndrome opens door to Alzheimer's prevention trials
Clinical trials for preventing Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome may soon be possible thanks to new research from King's College London. The researchers found changes in memory and attention are the earliest signs of Alzheimer's in Down syndrome, and these changes start in the early 40s.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Paris, November 29, 2018 Researchers from the CNRS and université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier (UT3) show that fruit flies possess all of the cognitive capacities needed to culturally transmit their sexual preferences across generations. The study, published on November 30, 2018 in Science , provides the first experimental toolbox for studying the existence of animal cultures, thereby opening up an entire field of research.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.11.2018
'Mini-placentas' could provide a model for early pregnancy
’Mini-placentas’ could provide a model for early pregnancy
Researchers say that new 'mini-placentas' - a cellular model of the early stages of the placenta - could provide a window into early pregnancy and help transform our understanding of reproductive disorders. Details of this new research are published today . The placenta is absolutely essential for supporting the baby as it grows inside the mother.

Life Sciences - 28.11.2018
First Digital 3D Brain Cell Atlas
First Digital 3D Brain Cell Atlas
Like "going from hand-drawn maps to Google Earth," the Blue Brain Cell Atlas allows anyone to visualize every region in the mouse brain, cell-by-cell - and freely download data for new analyses and modelling. The first digital 3D atlas of every cell in the mouse brain provides neuroscientists with previously unavailable information on major cell types, numbers and positions in all 737 brain regions - which will potentially accelerate progress in brain science massively.

Life Sciences - 28.11.2018
Predators drive Nemo's relationship with an unlikely friend
Predators drive Nemo’s relationship with an unlikely friend
Predators have been identified as the shaping force behind mutually beneficial relationships between species such as clownfish and anemones. The finding results from a University of Queensland and Deakin University-led study. UQ School of Biological Sciences researcher and Australian-American Fulbright Scholar Dr William Feeney said the research aimed to understand the origin of such relationships, known as interspecies mutualisms, which are extremely common in nature.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.11.2018
Researchers identify key players in mysterious process of protein quality control
A new discovery reveals how cells decide what to do with misshapen proteins - whether to salvage or destroy them - and could guide research into neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular processes. Facebook Twitter Email Proteins are the workhorses of our cells, carrying out essential tasks to keep our cells - and our bodies - functioning properly.

Computer Science - Life Sciences - 27.11.2018
Helping the Blind to Navigate
Picture yourself going to an unfamiliar supermarket for the first time. If you are a person who can see, you can simply look around to guide yourself and identify objects and obstacles. However, blind people must use other senses to find their way through a new space. Soon, the blind might have some navigational help, thanks to Caltech researchers who have combined augmented reality hardware and computer vision algorithms to develop software that enables objects to "talk." Worn as a portable headset, the technology translates the optical world into plain English audio.

Life Sciences - 27.11.2018
Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago
Oxygen could have been available to life as early as 3.5 billion years ago
Microbes could have performed oxygen-producing photosynthesis at least one billion years earlier in the history of the Earth than previously thought. The finding could change ideas of how and when complex life evolved on Earth, and how likely it is that it could evolve on other planets. Oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is necessary for complex forms of life, which use it during aerobic respiration to make energy.

Life Sciences - Mechanical Engineering - 27.11.2018
How cells generate forces
How cells generate forces
When an organism develops, masses of cells combine to form different types of tissue, all of which have different functions. In order to be able to form and to move, a cell needs to generate mechanical forces by remodelling its cytoskeleton, which consists of various filaments. Filaments from the actin protein, for example, contract and expand.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.11.2018
UC San Diego-Led Study Predicts Novel Approach to Battling Influenza
Every year, three to five million people around the world suffer from severe illness caused by influenza, primarily during the months of November through March. Now a new study by researchers from several universities including UC San Diego, published earlier this month in ACS Central Science , suggests a novel approach for combatting this sometimes deadly virus.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.11.2018
Threatened tropical coral reefs form complex, ancient associations with bacteria, researchers say
Threatened tropical coral reefs form complex, ancient associations with bacteria, researchers say
When it comes to the well-being of coral reefs, for many years scientists focused on bleaching , an event that can endanger corals and the diverse marine ecosystems that they support. In bleaching, high temperatures or other stressors cause corals to expel Symbiodinium , the beneficial, brightly colored microbes that would normally share excess energy and nutrients with corals.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.11.2018
Discovery of the first common genetic risk factors for ADHD
A global team of researchers has found the first common genetic risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex condition affecting around 1 in 20 children. Professor Anita Thapar, from Cardiff University, who leads an ADHD research group as part of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, said: "This study marks a very important step in beginning to understand the genetic and biological underpinnings of ADHD.

Life Sciences - Physics - 27.11.2018
Potential New Way to Boost Biofuels and Bioproducts Production
Potential New Way to Boost Biofuels and Bioproducts Production
JBEI researchers gain understanding of central metabolism of bacteria and yeast species commonly used in biotechnology Researchers at the Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have gained insight into the primary process by which all cells harness energy, known as cellular respiration, of E. coli bacteria and a species of yeast, each of which are common hosts for biofuels and bioproducts.

Life Sciences - 27.11.2018
Extinct ’Siberian unicorn’ may have lived alongside humans
A species of rhino considered a giant of the Ice Age survived much later than previously thought and likely lived alongside modern humans, according to new research. Scientists believed that the ancient rhino species Elasmotherium sibiricum, known as the 'Siberian unicorn', due to its extraordinary single horn, went extinct between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago.