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Life Sciences - Health - 04.01.2018
Lipid metabolism controls regeneration in the central nervous system
Lipid metabolism controls regeneration in the central nervous system
Research news Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which the body's own immune cells attack the fatty, insulating myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers. The regeneration of intact myelin sheathes is a necessary prerequisite for patients to recover from MS relapses.

Life Sciences - 04.01.2018
Mirror neuron activity predicts people's decision-making in moral dilemmas, UCLA study finds
Mirror neuron activity predicts people’s decision-making in moral dilemmas, UCLA study finds
It is wartime. You and your fellow refugees are hiding from enemy soldiers, when a baby begins to cry. You cover her mouth to block the sound. If you remove your hand, her crying will draw the attention of the soldiers, who will kill everyone. If you smother the child, you'll save yourself and the others.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.01.2018
Real World Native Biocrusts: Microbial Metabolism
Biocrust amongst one of its many natural habitats, taken about 20 miles from the sampling site (near the Corona Arch, Moab, UT). Credit: Tami Swenson Arid lands, which cover some 40 percent of the Earth's terrestrial surface, are too dry to sustain much in the way of vegetation. But far from being barren, they are home to diverse communities of microorganisms-including fungi, bacteria, and archaea-that dwell together within the uppermost millimeters of soil.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.01.2018
New brainstem changes identified in Parkinson's disease
New brainstem changes identified in Parkinson’s disease
New brainstem changes identified in Parkinson's disease A pioneering study has found that patients with Parkinson's disease have more errors in the mitochondrial DNA within the brainstem, leading to increased cell death in that area. Experts at Newcastle and Sussex universities also revealed that surviving brain cells in the brainstem have more copies of mitochondrial DNA and this has not been identified before.

Health - Life Sciences - 04.01.2018
Researchers contribute to three of 10 ’discoveries of year’ selected by Quebec Science for 2017
Québec Science magazine has selected its 10 Discoveries of the Year for 2017, including three involving McGill researchers. The annual list has highlighted top scientific research from across Quebec for the past 25 years, and McGill has been cited more than any other institution during that quarter-century.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 03.01.2018
Direct genetic evidence of founding population reveals story of first Native Americans
Direct genetic evidence of founding population reveals story of first Native Americans
Direct genetic traces of the earliest Native Americans have been identified for the first time in a new study. The genetic evidence suggests that people may have entered the continent in a single migratory wave, perhaps arriving more than 20,000 years ago.

Earth Sciences - Life Sciences - 03.01.2018
Which came first: complex life or high atmospheric oxygen?
Which came first: complex life or high atmospheric oxygen?
We and all other animals wouldn't be here today if our planet didn't have a lot of oxygen in its atmosphere and oceans. But how crucial were high oxygen levels to the transition from simple, single-celled life forms to the complexity we see today? A study by UC Berkeley geochemists presents new evidence that high levels of oxygen were not critical to the origin of animals.

Life Sciences - Health - 03.01.2018
'Silent Code' of Nucleotides, Not Amino Acids, Determines Discrete Functions of Proteins Vital For Life
’Silent Code’ of Nucleotides, Not Amino Acids, Determines Discrete Functions of Proteins Vital For Life
Humans possess six forms of the protein actin, which perform essential functions in the body. Two in particular, -actin and -actin, are nearly identical, only differing by four amino acids. Yet these near-twin proteins carry out distinct roles. A long standing question for biologists has been, how is this possible? "It's a mystery that's been debated in the field for the past 40 years," said Anna Kashina , a professor of biochemistry in the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.

Health - Life Sciences - 03.01.2018
Uncovering asthma’s genetic origins
The statistics about asthma are staggering. According to a recent Global Burden of Disease Study , more than 334 million people worldwide may suffer from this common chronic disease. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that asthma afflicts an estimated 25 million people, about 8 percent of the population.

Life Sciences - Event - 03.01.2018
Researcher Awarded Swartz Fellowship to Investigate Brain Mechanisms of Learning and Memory
Wednesday, January 3, 2018 Gaia Tavoni, a postdoctoral fellow of the Computational Neuroscience Initiative at the University of Pennsylvania, has been named a Swartz Foundation Fellow for Theory in Neuroscience for her research proposal suggesting pathways to investigate the brain mechanisms involved in learning and memory.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.01.2018
Reversibility of Friedreich's ataxia in mice
Reversibility of Friedreich’s ataxia in mice
Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited disease that causes damage to the nervous system and a loss of coordination that typically progresses to muscle weakness. It can begin causing symptoms in childhood or early adulthood and, over time, it can also lead to vision loss and diabetes. Scientists seeking a better understanding of the disease have tried for years to replicate the disease's symptoms and progression in laboratory mice, but until recently have been largely unsuccessful.

Life Sciences - Health - 02.01.2018
New brain mapping technique highlights relationship between connectivity and IQ
New brain mapping technique highlights relationship between connectivity and IQ
A new and relatively simple technique for mapping the wiring of the brain has shown a correlation between how well connected an individual's brain regions are and their intelligence, say researchers at the University of Cambridge.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.01.2018
Imaging technique could be 'new ballgame' in drug development
Imaging technique could be ’new ballgame’ in drug development
Biochemistry and structural biology are surprisingly — at least to the uninitiated — visual fields. This is especially true in the study of proteins. Scientists like to see the structure of proteins within cells to help them truly understand how they work, how they don't work or how they can be modified to work as they should.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.01.2018
Diabetes drug
Diabetes drug “significantly reverses memory loss” in mice with Alzheimer’s
A drug developed for diabetes could be used to treat Alzheimer's after scientists found it "significantly reversed memory loss" in mice through a triple method of action. The research, published in Brain Research , could bring substantial improvements in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease through the use of a drug originally created to treat type 2 diabetes.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 02.01.2018
Engineers: Bone Marrow Transplant Stem Cells Can 'Swim' Upstream
Engineers: Bone Marrow Transplant Stem Cells Can ’Swim’ Upstream
When a cancer patient receives a bone marrow transplant, time is of the essence. Healthy stem cells, which can restart the production of blood cells and immune system components after a patient's own are compromised, need to make their way from the circulatory system into the bones as quickly as possible.
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