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Computer Science - 16.12.2019
ANR IA Chairs: two recipients at ENS de Lyon
The 'AI Chairs' aim to offer researchers substantial resources to build a team and carry out an ambitious project whose visible impact is expected. A multi-year program of 40 Chairs in Artificial Intelligence is one of the measures under this research component, which was presented on November 2018 by the Minister of Higher Education, Research and Innovation and the Secretary of State for Digital Technology.

Physics - 16.12.2019
What happens to gold nanoparticles in cells?
What happens to gold nanoparticles in cells?
Gold nanoparticles, which are supposed to be stable in biological environments, can be degraded inside cells. This research conducted by teams from the CNRS, l'Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, and l'Université de Strasbourg will be published in PNAS on December 16 2019, and reveals the ability of cells to metabolize gold, which is nevertheless not essential for their functioning.

Paleontology - Environment - 16.12.2019
Two in one: Fossil shells reveal both global mercury contamination and warming when dinosaurs perished
Two in one: Fossil shells reveal both global mercury contamination and warming when dinosaurs perished
The impact of an asteroid or comet is acknowledged as the principal cause of the mass extinction that killed off most dinosaurs and about three-quarters of the planet's plant and animal species 66 million years ago. But massive volcanic eruptions in India may also have contributed to the extinctions.

Life Sciences - 16.12.2019
CMU Algorithm Rapidly Finds Anomalies in Gene Expression Data
Computational biologists at Carnegie Mellon University have devised an algorithm to rapidly sort through mountains of gene expression data to find unexpected phenomena that might merit further study. What's more, the algorithm then re-examines its own output, looking for mistakes it has made and then correcting them.

Chemistry - Physics - 16.12.2019
Chemists glimpse the fleeting
Chemists glimpse the fleeting "transition state" of a reaction
New technique for observing reaction products offers insights into the chemical mechanisms that formed them. During a chemical reaction, the molecules involved in the reaction gain energy until they reach a "point of no return" known as a transition state. Until now, no one has glimpsed this state, as it lasts for only a few femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second).

Environment - 16.12.2019
The uncertain role of natural gas in the transition to clean energy
The uncertain role of natural gas in the transition to clean energy
MIT study finds that challenges in measuring and mitigating leakage of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, prove pivotal. A new MIT study examines the opposing roles of natural gas in the battle against climate change - as a bridge toward a lower-emissions future, but also a contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

Life Sciences - Environment - 16.12.2019
New methods promise to speed up development of new plant varieties
A University of Minnesota research team recently developed new methods that will make it significantly faster to produce gene-edited plants. They hope to alleviate a long-standing bottleneck in gene editing and, in the process, make it easier and faster to develop and test new crop varieties with two new approaches described in a paper recently published.  Despite dramatic advances in scientists' ability to edit plant genomes using gene-editing tools such as CRISPR and TALENs, researchers were stuck using an antiquated approach - tissue culture.

Economics / Business - Health - 15.12.2019
New health insurance insights
New health insurance insights
Economists analyze how patients and health care providers value Medicaid. A new analysis of a randomized health insurance program in Oregon sheds light on the value the program has for enrollees and providers alike. The study, by MIT economist Amy Finkelstein and two co-authors, suggests that adults with low incomes value Medicaid at only about 20 cents to 50 cents per dollar of medical spending paid on their behalf.

Pharmacology - Health - 14.12.2019
Excessive Rates of Antibiotic Prescriptions for Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Excessive Rates of Antibiotic Prescriptions for Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Between 2007 and 2017, children in eight lowand middle-income countries received, on average, 25 antibiotic prescriptions from birth through age five - up to five times higher than the already high levels observed in high-income settings. Many of the prescriptions are unnecessary and might exacerbate resistance.

Materials Science - 14.12.2019
Researchers break the geometric limitations of moiré pattern in graphene heterostructures
Researchers at the University of Manchester in collaboration with CMT theorists (M. Andelkovic, S. Milovanovic, L. Covaci and F. Peeters) have uncovered interesting phenomena when multiple two-dimensional materials are combined into van der Waals heterostructures (layered 'sandwiches' of different materials).

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 13.12.2019
Clinical trial for Ebola vaccine developed at UW-Madison underway in Japan
As of this week, a phase one clinical trial to test a potential new Ebola vaccine developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is underway in Japan. Fifteen healthy young men* will receive two doses of the experimental vaccine. If the first group tolerates the vaccine, an additional group of up to 20 volunteers will receive a higher dose of the vaccine.

Computer Science - 13.12.2019
More than just a goodnight message
More than just a goodnight message
"You missed something yesterday. Tim fell in our pool!" "Now really @Tim?- Thought you didn't want to drink anything"? "Haha tim :D" What sounds like banal chit-chat among a group of young people about what happened at a party is of great interest to linguists at the Institute of German Language and Literature at the University of Münster.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 13.12.2019
Drug-resistant superbug deploys sentinels to warn of attack
Drug-resistant superbug deploys sentinels to warn of attack
Rice, UTHealth discovery could aid fight against multidrug-resistant VRE  Researchers from Rice University and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston spent more than eight years trying to solve a puzzle: How could a deadly superbug known as VRE become resistant to a new antibiotic in less than five years' The answer surprised everyone.

Economics / Business - 13.12.2019
The science of couples cheating with their money
One in three people commit "financial infidelity", with potentially toxic consequences for their relationships, according to a study co-led by UCL which is thought to be the first to investigate the concept. Romantic relationships are built on trust, but partners are not always honest about their financial behaviour - they often hide spending, debt, and savings from one another.

Chemistry - Physics - 13.12.2019
Hydrogen as a Climate-neutral Fuel
A team of researchers from Freie Universität Berlin, the University of Bochum, and the University of Linz has succeeded in observing the transfer of protons in a hydrogenase reaction. No 391/2019 from Dec 13, 2019 Scientists from Freie Universität Berlin, the University of Bochum, and the University of Linz have found evidence for the design of so-called biomimetic catalysts.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 12.12.2019
A quantum leap that’s been decades in the making
Science enthusiasts and the general public have become accustomed to finding out about cataclysmic events in space such as black holes colliding, as though spotting them was as easy as riding a bike. In fact, scientists only detected ripples from such an event for the first time about four years ago.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 12.12.2019
Labelling foods with amount of physical activity needed to burn off calories linked to healthier choices
Labelling food and drink with the amount and type of exercise needed to burn off its calorie content may be a more effective way of encouraging people to make 'healthier' dietary choices, shows research carried out in collaboration with the University of Birmingham.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2019
Alcohol, ’Asian glow’ mutation may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease
In the presence of alcohol, a defective version of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene in human cell cultures and mice leads to biochemical changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. A common mutation in a key enzyme involved in alcohol metabolism increases damage in cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease and in mice, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.  This mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, or ALDH2, is associated with facial redness following alcohol consumption.

Physics - Materials Science - 12.12.2019
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Scientists at Berkeley Lab convert diamonds' atomic flaws into atomic sensors with front-row seats to a quantum world of materials under extreme pressure S ince their invention more than 60 years ago, diamond anvil cells have made it possible for scientists to recreate extreme phenomena - such as the crushing pressures deep inside the Earth's mantle - or to enable chemical reactions that can only be triggered by intense pressure, all within the confines of a laboratory apparatus that you can safely hold in the palm of your hand.

Health - 12.12.2019
ER visits did not rise with Medicaid expansion under Affordable Care Act
FINDINGS Patient visits by Medicaid recipients to primary care physicians rose 3.6% during the first three years of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act but did not lead to an increase in the use of emergency departments. BACKGROUND Research findings about the impact of state Medicaid expansions on the use of primary care physicians and emergency departments have been mixed.
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