News 2019


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Results 281 - 300 of 3505.


Physics - Materials Science - 29.11.2019
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Physicists from Switzerland, Germany, and France have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors. One of the main challenges in materials science research is to achieve high tunability of the optical properties of semiconductors at room temperature.

Computer Science - Health - 29.11.2019
Opinion: How the technology behind deepfakes can benefit all of society
Professor Geraint Rees, Pro-Vice-Provost of Artificial Intelligence at UCL, writes that AI can and must be used for good, to complement and augment human endeavour rather than replace it. Recent advances in deepfake video technology have led to a rapid increase of such videos in the public domain in the past year.

Environment - Music - 29.11.2019
Sounds of the past give new hope for coral reef restoration
Young fish can be drawn to degraded coral reefs by loudspeakers playing the sounds of healthy reefs, according to new research published today [29 November] . An international team of scientists from the UK's Universities of Exeter and Bristol, and Australia's James Cook University and Australian Institute of Marine Science, say this "acoustic enrichment" could be a valuable tool in helping to restore damaged coral reefs.

Health - 29.11.2019
Trauma and disease ravage SEQ koalas
Trauma and disease ravage SEQ koalas
It's well known that South East Queensland koalas are doing it tough, and a University of Queensland study sheds new light on the multiple issues afflicting them. Researchers Associate Professor Rachel Allavena and Associate Professor Joerg Henning investigated the relationship between disease and mortality in South East Queensland koalas.

Innovation - Social Sciences - 28.11.2019
Birmingham ’innovation hub’ boosts global clean energy prospects
British and German experts from industry and academia will create a new 'Innovation Hub' based in Birmingham to deliver new approaches to energy and waste management that will benefit cities and communities in China and around the world. Energy experts from the University of Birmingham and Fraunhofer UMSICHT have renewed their Joint Research Platform set up in 2016 with plans to locate collaborative research in a new centre at the city's Tyseley Energy Park.

Veterinary - Environment - 28.11.2019
Unique sledge dogs helped the Inuit thrive in the North American Arctic
A unique group of dogs helped the Inuit conquer the tough terrain of the North American Arctic, a major new analysis of the remains of hundreds of animals shows. The results of a major new study on the remains of Artic sledge dogs reveals that the Inuit brought specialised dogs with them when they migrated from Siberia over the Bering Strait into North America.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 28.11.2019
Underwater telecom cables make superb seismic network
The oceans are criss-crossed by telecommunications cables, as illustrated by this graphic predicting the fiber-optic cables that will be operational by 2021, many of them (yellow) owned by private companies like Google and Microsoft. These cables could serve a dual purpose as seismic stations to monitor earthquakes and fault systems over the 70% of Earth covered by water.

Health - 28.11.2019
Death risk up to 12 times higher for mothers with prenatal opioid use
Approximately one in 20 mothers whose babies are born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) died within 10 years of delivery in both England and Canada, according to a new study from researchers at UCL and ICES and The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Canada Neonatal abstinence syndrome (also called NAS) is a group of symptoms experienced by babies from withdrawal from certain drugs (predominantly opioids) that they are exposed to in the womb before birth.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.11.2019
Placenta changes could mean male offspring of older mums more likely to develop heart problems in later life, rat study finds
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Event - 28.11.2019
Shows there’s nothing wacky about conspiracy theorists
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have delved into the world of online conspiracy theories, showing most of the people behind them are actually pretty ordinary. The study looked at eight years of content, sifting through more than two billion comments posted on Reddit, including everything posted to the subreddit r/conspiracy.

Pharmacology - Health - 28.11.2019
Pharmacist-led interventions may help prevent cardiovascular disease
Pharmacists based in GP practices can play an integral role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, finds new research led by the University of Birmingham. The study findings, published today in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , support the involvement of pharmacists as healthcare providers in managing patients with hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 27.11.2019
Barbequed clams on the menu for ancient Puerto Ricans
Scientists have reconstructed the cooking techniques of the early inhabitants of Puerto Rico by analysing the remains of clams. Led by Philip Staudigel, who conducted the analysis as a graduate student at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School and is now a postdoctoral researcher at Cardiff University, the team has used new chemical analysis techniques to identify the exact cooking temperatures at which clams were cooked over 2500 years ago.

Life Sciences - Paleontology - 27.11.2019
Animal embryos evolved before animals
Animals evolved from single-celled ancestors, before diversifying into 30 or 40 distinct anatomical designs. When and how animal ancestors made the transition from single-celled microbes to complex multicellular organisms has been the focus of intense debate.

Environment - Life Sciences - 27.11.2019
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Since 2013, a European Union (EU) moratorium has restricted the application of three neonicotinoids to crops that attract bees because of the harmful effects they are deemed to have on these insects. Yet researchers from the CNRS, INRA, and the Institut de l'Abeille (ITSAP) have just demonstrated that residues of these insecticides-and especially of imidacloprid-can still be detected in rape nectar from 48% of the plots of studied fields, their concentrations varying greatly over the years.

Health - 27.11.2019
Suggests inducing labour at 41 weeks reduces risk, says maternity expert
A University of Birmingham maternity expert says research indicates that inducing women with low-risk pregnancies at 41 weeks rather than waiting until 42 weeks reduces risk to their baby's life. Current practice in the UK and Scandinavia is to induce delivery for women who have not gone into labour by 42 weeks.

Social Sciences - Computer Science - 27.11.2019
Researchers get 'glimpse into a human mind' as it makes choices in groups, social media
Researchers get ’glimpse into a human mind’ as it makes choices in groups, social media
The choices we make in large group settings - such as in online forums and social media - might seem fairly automatic to us. But our decision-making process is more complicated than we know. So, researchers have been working to understand what's behind that seemingly intuitive process. Now, new University of Washington research has discovered that in large groups of essentially anonymous members, people make choices based on a model of the "mind of the group" and an evolving simulation of how a choice will affect that theorized mind.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.11.2019
Researchers identify protein that governs human blood stem cell self-renewal
UCLA scientists have discovered a link between a protein and the ability of human blood stem cells to self-renew. In a study published today , the team reports that activating the protein causes blood stem cells to self-renew at least twelvefold in laboratory conditions. Multiplying blood stem cells in conditions outside the human body could greatly improve treatment options for blood cancers like leukemia and for many inherited blood diseases.

Chemistry - Physics - 27.11.2019
An electron highway headed for methanol
An electron highway headed for methanol
Making methanol just got a lot easier, now that chemists at Yale have opened up a new electron highway. The discovery, published online Nov. 27 , finds a novel solution for two chemical tasks: producing methanol - a volatile, liquid fuel that is prized by industry - and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Chemistry - Physics - 27.11.2019
Cutting nanoparticles down to size - new study
A new technique in chemistry could pave the way for producing uniform nanoparticles for use in drug delivery systems. Scientists have been investigating how to make better use of nanoparticles in medicine for several decades. Significantly smaller than an average cell, nanoparticles are more similar in size to proteins.

Physics - Materials Science - 27.11.2019
What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?
White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne. Until now, it has been a mystery to scientists how these white blood cells - called cytotoxic lymphocytes - avoid being killed by their own actions and the discovery could help explain why some tumours are more resistant than others to recently developed cancer immunotherapies.