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Computer Science / Telecom - Earth Sciences - 08.11.2019
Using AI to predict where and when lightning will strike
Using AI to predict where and when lightning will strike
Researchers at EPFL have developed a novel way of predicting lightning strikes to the nearest 10 to 30 minutes and within a radius of 30 kilometers. The system uses a combination of standard data from weather stations and artificial intelligence. Lightning is one of the most unpredictable phenomena in nature.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
Aquatic invasive species are short-circuiting benefits from mercury reduction in the Great Lakes
Using a combination of mercury, nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis - which he terms "fingerprinting" - on samples of lake trout archived from 1978 to 2012, researcher Ryan Lepak discovered there wasn't an obvious decrease in concentrations of mercury in these fish even though the sediment record revealed reduced mercury loading.

Palaeontology - Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
Discriminating diets of meat-eating dinosaurs
Discriminating diets of meat-eating dinosaurs
A big problem with dinosaurs is that there seem to be too many meat-eaters. From studies of modern animals, there is a feeding pyramid, with plants at the bottom, then plant-eaters, and then meat-eaters at the top. A new study by scientists at the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences , published in the journal Palaeontology, shows that dinosaurian meat-eaters, the theropod dinosaurs, specialised a great deal, and so broadened their food base.

Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
New way to date rocks
A new way to date a common mineral could help pinpoint ore deposits and improve mineral exploration globally, according to University of Queensland scientists. The researchers have identified a new reference material and used a state-of-the-art instrument to better date rock formations in central Asia.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 01.11.2019
Rice yields plummet and arsenic rises in future climate-soil scenarios
Research combining future climate conditions and arsenic-induced soil stresses predicts rice yields could decline about 40 percent by 2100, a loss that would impact about 2 billion people dependent on the global crop. Rice is the largest global staple crop, consumed by more than half the world's population - but new experiments from Stanford University suggest that with climate change, production in major rice-growing regions with endemic soil arsenic will undergo a dramatic decline and jeopardize critical food supplies.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 30.10.2019
Climate models and geology reveal new insights into the East Asian monsoon
Climate models and geology reveal new insights into the East Asian monsoon
A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have used climate models and geological records to better understand changes in the East Asian monsoon over long geologic time scales. Their findings, published today in the journal Science Advances , suggest that the monsoon system's development was more sensitive to changes in geography (especially mountain height) rather than carbon dioxide, and that the monsoon came into existence around 40 million years earlier than previously thought.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 28.10.2019
Antarctic sea ice is key to triggering ice ages
We've known for years that Earth's climate is like a giant Rube Goldberg machine: Pull one lever, and a massive chain of events starts into motion. Yet many of the steps that drive these changes have remained shrouded in uncertainty. "One key question in the field is still what caused the Earth to periodically cycle in and out of ice ages," said Asst.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.10.2019
Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of CO2
Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of CO2
For the first time, an EPFL-led team of scientists has measured the total amount of CO2 emissions from mountain streams worldwide. This research builds on findings issued in February 2019 and shows how important it is to include mountain streams in assessments of the global carbon cycle.  Mountains cover 25% of the Earth's surface, and the streams draining these mountains account for more than a third of the global runoff.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.10.2019
Climate change is affecting the way Europe floods, experts warn
Climate change is disrupting the rhythms of spring growing and river flooding across Europe, which could pose new problems for biodiversity and food security in floodplains, scientists say. New analysis of five decades of European flood and temperature data, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, demonstrates for the first time an increasing overlap between the onset of spring and the highest points of seasonal flooding.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 24.10.2019
Martian landslides not conclusive evidence of ice
Martian landslides not conclusive evidence of ice
Giant ridges on the surface of landslides on Mars could have formed without ice, challenging their use by some as unequivocal evidence of past ice on the red planet, finds a new UCL-led study using state-of-the-art satellite data. Detailed three-dimensional images of an extensive landslide on Mars, which spans an area more than 55 kilometres wide, have been analysed to understand how the unusually large and long ridges and furrows formed about 400 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - Palaeontology - 21.10.2019
Mystery solved: ocean acidity in the last mass extinction
Mystery solved: ocean acidity in the last mass extinction
A new study led by Yale University confirms a long-held theory about the last great mass extinction event in history and how it affected Earth's oceans. The findings may also answer questions about how marine life eventually recovered. The researchers say it is the first direct evidence that the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago coincided with a sharp drop in the pH levels of the oceans - which indicates a rise in ocean acidity.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.10.2019
Coral discovery equips researchers with new environmental monitoring method
A rare element discovered in Great Barrier Reef coral skeletons will help scientists understand the environmental history of nearby regions. Researchers at The University of Queensland's Sustainable Minerals Institute (SMI) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (SEES) found concentrations of the element vanadium in coral is directly linked to forest burning and land clearing in the area.

Earth Sciences - 18.10.2019
Better Predicting Earthquake Damage to Infrastructure with Faster Computing
Better Predicting Earthquake Damage to Infrastructure with Faster Computing
A Q&A with a Berkeley Lab scientist on how exascale computing could dramatically accelerate research and earthquake safety By Jessica Scully Researchers at Berkeley Lab are using high-performance computing systems to better predict how structures will respond to an earthquake along one of the Bay Area's most dangerous faults.

Earth Sciences - 16.10.2019
Q&A: 30 years after the Loma Prieta earthquake
Immune markers and pollutant levels in the blood indicate wildfire smoke may be more harmful to children's health than smoke from a controlled burn, Stanford researchers found. The realities of subsistence living in a region of Senegal hard hit by schistosomiasis make reinfection likely, despite mass drug administration.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 14.10.2019
Q&A: How exploring Venus could unlock our understanding of Earth's future
Q&A: How exploring Venus could unlock our understanding of Earth’s future
As the EnVision mission to Venus is preparing for its planned launch in 2032, we speak to the Imperial researcher who is a part of the Science Team. With its extremely high temperatures and surface veiled by thick clouds, Venus represents an unusual example of planet formation and evolution. Once thought to be a tropical paradise, it was only in the 1960s that scientists were able to observe its hostile environment.

Earth Sciences - 14.10.2019
Clay minerals call the shots with carbon
Clay minerals call the shots with carbon
Clay minerals suspended in seawater binds sedimentary organic carbon to their mineral surfaces. But the quantity of carbon that is bound and the source of that carbon very much depends on the clay mineral in question. A research team from ETH Zurich and Tongji University have shown this by studying sediments in the South China Sea.

Earth Sciences - 09.10.2019
Was that the main quake?
So far it has not been possible to predict whether a strong quake will probably be followed by a stronger one or not. A new study by researchers from the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich gives rise to hopes of being able to make predictions in almost real time. Whereas most major earthquakes are not preceded by foreshocks, they are always followed by thousands of aftershocks, whose frequency and magnitude fade over time.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 09.10.2019
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Researchers from INRA and CNRS have shown for the first time that bee pollination surpasses the use of pesticides in yield and especially in profitability of oilseed rape. The team of researchers analysed data collected over four years in farmers' fields in an agricultural plain in Deux-Sèvres (Nouvelle Aquitaine, western France).

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 08.10.2019
Global analysis of submarine canyons may shed light on Martian landscapes
Global analysis of submarine canyons may shed light on Martian landscapes
On a map, submarine canyons seem identical to land canyons - so much so that researchers surmised they are shaped by the same physical laws. New research reveals distinct differences for the first time. Submarine canyons are a final frontier on planet Earth. There are thousands of these breathtaking geological features hidden within the depths of the ocean - yet scientists have more high-resolution imagery of the surface of Mars than of Earth's ocean floor.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 24.09.2019
'Treasure trove' of quake clues could be unearthed by wavy new technique
’Treasure trove’ of quake clues could be unearthed by wavy new technique
Imperial geologists have improved the mapping of underwater rocks, which could lead to better understanding of earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Their technique combines traditional acoustic mapping with a newer method called 2D waveform inversion. This enhanced their view of rocks along a fault line - a break in the Earth's crust - off the east coast of New Zealand's North Island.
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