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Results 21 - 40 of 153.


Earth Sciences - 25.11.2019
What are lost continents and why are we discovering so many?
What are lost continents and why are we discovering so many?
Led by ARC Future Fellow Dr Maria Seton from the School of Geosciences, a multi-institutional team is finding surprising new information about the nature of continents, from Zealandia and beyond. For most people, continents are Earth's seven main large landmasses. But geoscientists have a different take on this.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 21.11.2019
New Geochemistry Technique Yields Clues about Earth’s Earliest Days
Half a century ago, in lab nicknamed the "Lunatic Asylum" in the Charles Arms Laboratory of the Geological Sciences, the late Gerald Wasserburg constructed the first-ever digital mass spectrometer. That device, dubbed the Lunatic I, revolutionized the field of geochemistry by increasing by an order of magnitude the precision with which isotope ratios could be measured; isotopes are the "flavors" of elements and vary based on the number of neutrons they have in their atomic nuclei.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 20.11.2019
Stabilizing a cliff using biomineral binders
Stabilizing a cliff using biomineral binders
EPFL spin-off Medusoil has successfully tested its ground-stabilization process on cliffs subject to surface erosion. The company's biomineral-based solution can be used to stabilize sandy and gravelly subsoils to safeguard surrounding infrastructure. It is a long-lasting and easy-to-use alternative to industrial fluids - the production and use of which can be harmful to the environment.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 14.11.2019
Professor’s study of ancient crystals sheds light on earth’s early years
Geoscience Professor John Valley at work in the Wisconsin Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer Lab (WiscSIMS) in Weeks Hall. Photo: Jeff Miller "Old" is a subjective term. Ask a five-year-old, and you might hear 'teenage." A mid-lifer might say '80." To University of Wisconsin-Madison professor of geosciences John Valley, age 71, "old" is 4-billion years plus.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 13.11.2019
Large storage potential in future ice-free glacier basins
Large storage potential in future ice-free glacier basins
Glaciologists at ETH Zurich and WSL assessed the global water storage and hydropower potential that could be freed up in future as glaciers melt in response to climate change. Global warming will cause substantial glacier retreat for the majority of the world's glaciers over the next few decades. This will not only spell the end for some magnificent natural monuments, but also importantly affect the water cycle.

Earth Sciences - 13.11.2019
Volcanoes under pressure
Volcanoes under pressure
When will the next eruption take place? Examination of samples from Indonesia's Mount Merapi show that the explosivity of stratovolcanoes rises when mineral-rich gases seal the pores and microcracks in the uppermost layers of stone. These findings result in new possibilities for the prediction of an eruption.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 13.11.2019
Climate Change Expected to Shift Location of East Asian Monsoons
Climate Change Expected to Shift Location of East Asian Monsoons
New Berkeley Lab study finds warming climate could lead to profound changes in the subtropical climate More than a billion people in Asia depend on seasonal monsoons for their water needs. The Asian monsoon is closely linked to a planetary-scale tropical air flow which, according to a new study by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), will most likely shift geographically as the climate continues to warm, resulting in less rainfall in certain regions.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 12.11.2019
Stalled weather patterns will get bigger due to climate change
Stalled weather patterns will get bigger due to climate change
Rice-led study uncovers relationship between jet stream, atmospheric blocking events Climate change will increase the size of stalled high-pressure weather systems called "blocking events” that have already produced some of the 21st century's deadliest heat waves, according to a Rice University study.

Computer Science - Earth Sciences - 08.11.2019
Using AI to predict where and when lightning will strike
Using AI to predict where and when lightning will strike
Researchers at EPFL have developed a novel way of predicting lightning strikes to the nearest 10 to 30 minutes and within a radius of 30 kilometers. The system uses a combination of standard data from weather stations and artificial intelligence. Lightning is one of the most unpredictable phenomena in nature.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
Aquatic invasive species are short-circuiting benefits from mercury reduction in the Great Lakes
Using a combination of mercury, nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis - which he terms "fingerprinting" - on samples of lake trout archived from 1978 to 2012, researcher Ryan Lepak discovered there wasn't an obvious decrease in concentrations of mercury in these fish even though the sediment record revealed reduced mercury loading.

Palaeontology - Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
Discriminating diets of meat-eating dinosaurs
Discriminating diets of meat-eating dinosaurs
A big problem with dinosaurs is that there seem to be too many meat-eaters. From studies of modern animals, there is a feeding pyramid, with plants at the bottom, then plant-eaters, and then meat-eaters at the top. A new study by scientists at the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences , published in the journal Palaeontology, shows that dinosaurian meat-eaters, the theropod dinosaurs, specialised a great deal, and so broadened their food base.

Earth Sciences - 04.11.2019
New way to date rocks
A new way to date a common mineral could help pinpoint ore deposits and improve mineral exploration globally, according to University of Queensland scientists. The researchers have identified a new reference material and used a state-of-the-art instrument to better date rock formations in central Asia.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 01.11.2019
Rice yields plummet and arsenic rises in future climate-soil scenarios
Research combining future climate conditions and arsenic-induced soil stresses predicts rice yields could decline about 40 percent by 2100, a loss that would impact about 2 billion people dependent on the global crop. Rice is the largest global staple crop, consumed by more than half the world's population - but new experiments from Stanford University suggest that with climate change, production in major rice-growing regions with endemic soil arsenic will undergo a dramatic decline and jeopardize critical food supplies.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 30.10.2019
Climate models and geology reveal new insights into the East Asian monsoon
Climate models and geology reveal new insights into the East Asian monsoon
A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have used climate models and geological records to better understand changes in the East Asian monsoon over long geologic time scales. Their findings, published today in the journal Science Advances , suggest that the monsoon system's development was more sensitive to changes in geography (especially mountain height) rather than carbon dioxide, and that the monsoon came into existence around 40 million years earlier than previously thought.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 28.10.2019
Antarctic sea ice is key to triggering ice ages
We've known for years that Earth's climate is like a giant Rube Goldberg machine: Pull one lever, and a massive chain of events starts into motion. Yet many of the steps that drive these changes have remained shrouded in uncertainty. "One key question in the field is still what caused the Earth to periodically cycle in and out of ice ages," said Asst.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.10.2019
Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of CO2
Mountain streams emit a surprising amount of CO2
For the first time, an EPFL-led team of scientists has measured the total amount of CO2 emissions from mountain streams worldwide. This research builds on findings issued in February 2019 and shows how important it is to include mountain streams in assessments of the global carbon cycle.  Mountains cover 25% of the Earth's surface, and the streams draining these mountains account for more than a third of the global runoff.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.10.2019
Climate change is affecting the way Europe floods, experts warn
Climate change is disrupting the rhythms of spring growing and river flooding across Europe, which could pose new problems for biodiversity and food security in floodplains, scientists say. New analysis of five decades of European flood and temperature data, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, demonstrates for the first time an increasing overlap between the onset of spring and the highest points of seasonal flooding.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 24.10.2019
Martian landslides not conclusive evidence of ice
Martian landslides not conclusive evidence of ice
Giant ridges on the surface of landslides on Mars could have formed without ice, challenging their use by some as unequivocal evidence of past ice on the red planet, finds a new UCL-led study using state-of-the-art satellite data. Detailed three-dimensional images of an extensive landslide on Mars, which spans an area more than 55 kilometres wide, have been analysed to understand how the unusually large and long ridges and furrows formed about 400 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - Palaeontology - 21.10.2019
Mystery solved: ocean acidity in the last mass extinction
Mystery solved: ocean acidity in the last mass extinction
A new study led by Yale University confirms a long-held theory about the last great mass extinction event in history and how it affected Earth's oceans. The findings may also answer questions about how marine life eventually recovered. The researchers say it is the first direct evidence that the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago coincided with a sharp drop in the pH levels of the oceans - which indicates a rise in ocean acidity.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.10.2019
Coral discovery equips researchers with new environmental monitoring method
A rare element discovered in Great Barrier Reef coral skeletons will help scientists understand the environmental history of nearby regions. Researchers at The University of Queensland's Sustainable Minerals Institute (SMI) and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (SEES) found concentrations of the element vanadium in coral is directly linked to forest burning and land clearing in the area.

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