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Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 17.07.2019
50 years later, UChicago scientists continue to decode moon’s mysteries
Fifty years ago, NASA astronauts stepped off Apollo 11 and delivered what instantly became the most precious rock on Earth: nearly 50 pounds of dust and rock fragments from the surface of the moon. Suddenly, the wildest dreams of geoscientists had come true, as tiny pieces of the first rocks collected on another celestial body made their way to labs across the U.S. for analysis.

Physics - Materials Science - 17.07.2019
First-ever visualisations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices
First-ever visualisations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices
Scientists have visualized the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely tuned, high-performance electronic devices. Physicists from the University of Washington and the University of Warwick developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in operating microelectronic devices made of atomically thin - so-called 2D - materials.

Physics - Materials Science - 17.07.2019
A Graphene Superconductor That Plays More Than One Tune
A Graphene Superconductor That Plays More Than One Tune
W hat's thinner than a human hair but has a depth of special traits' A multitasking graphene device developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). The superthin material easily switches from a superconductor that conducts electricity without losing any energy, to an insulator that resists the flow of electric current, and back again to a superconductor - all with a simple flip of a switch.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 17.07.2019
Hunting for
Hunting for "ghost particles": Neutrino observatory at the South Pole will be extended
For almost ten years, scientists from all over the world have been using the large-scale experiment "IceCube" to search for neutrinos in the permanent ice of the South Pole. Neutrinos are the smallest particles that reach Earth as cosmic rays. Now the participating researchers, among them Prof. Alexander Kappes from the University of Münster, are pleased about a huge upgrade of the laboratory, which should contribute to measuring the properties of neutrinos much more accurately than before.

Physics - Materials Science - 17.07.2019
First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices
First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure could lead to longer-lasting devices
Scientists have visualized the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely tuned, high-performance electronic devices. Physicists from the University of Washington and the University of Warwick developed a technique to measure the energy and momentum of electrons in operating microelectronic devices made of atomically thin - so-called 2D - materials.

Physics - Materials Science - 15.07.2019
Physicists find first possible 3D quantum spin liquid
Physicists find first possible 3D quantum spin liquid
Cerium pyrochlore is first to qualify as long-sought state of matter There's no known way to prove a three-dimensional "quantum spin liquid” exists, so Rice University physicists and their collaborators did the next best thing: They showed their single crystals of cerium zirconium pyrochlore had the right stuff to qualify as the first possible 3D version of the long-sought state of matter.

Physics - 12.07.2019
Weyl fermions discovered in another class of materials
A particular kind of elementary particle, the Weyl fermions, were first discovered a few years ago. Their specialty: They move through a material in a well ordered manner that practically never lets them collide with each other and is thus very energy efficient. This implies intriguing possibilities for the electronics of the future.

Physics - 12.07.2019
Image of quantum entanglement
For the first time ever, physicists have managed to take a photo of a strong form of quantum entanglement called Bell entanglement - capturing visual evidence of an elusive phenomenon which a baffled Albert Einstein once called 'spooky action at a distance'. Two particles which interact with each other - like two photons passing through a beam splitter, for example - can sometimes remain connected, instantaneously sharing their physical states no matter how great the distance which separates them.

Physics - 12.07.2019
Which is the perfect quantum theory?
Which is the perfect quantum theory?
Is that a dog or a cat? Such a classification is a prime example of machine learning: artificial neural networks can be trained to analyze images by looking for patterns that are characteristic of specific objects. Provided the system has learned such patterns, it is able to recognize dogs or cats on any picture.

Physics - Electroengineering - 12.07.2019
Rice device channels heat into light
Rice device channels heat into light
Carbon nanotube films created at Rice University enable method to recycle waste heat The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels - and anything else that loses energy through heat - far more efficient. Rice University scientists are designing arrays of aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes to channel mid-infrared radiation (aka heat) and greatly raise the efficiency of solar energy systems.

Chemistry - Physics - 11.07.2019
What happens when you explode a chemical bond?
UC Berkeley scientists are probing the fleeting steps in rapid photochemical reactions with some of the shortest laser pulses possible today. In this case, a femtosecond pulse of visible light (green) triggers the breakup of iodine monobromide molecules (center), while attosecond XUV laser pulses (blue) take snapshots of the molecules.

Physics - 11.07.2019
Physicists discover family members of Schrödinger's cat
Physicists discover family members of Schrödinger’s cat
It has been said that the internet exists chiefly to show videos of cats interacting with boxes. An international team of researchers led by The University of Queensland has extended cats and boxes into the quantum realm, discovering that Schrödinger's famous dead-and-alive cat is just one of an infinite family of quantum states.

Physics - 10.07.2019
Quantum sensor breakthrough using naturally occurring vibrations in artificial atoms
Quantum sensor breakthrough using naturally occurring vibrations in artificial atoms
A team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, have discovered a new method that could be used to build quantum sensors with ultra-high precision. When individual atoms emit light, they do so in discrete packets called photons. When this light is measured, this discrete or ‘granular' nature leads to especially low fluctuations in its brightness, as two or more photons are never emitted at the same time.

Physics - Computer Science / Telecom - 10.07.2019
Puzzling on a quantum chessboard
Puzzling on a quantum chessboard
Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. In a recent paper, they demonstrate that just a few quantum particles would be sufficient to solve the mathematically difficult N-queens problem in chess even for large chess boards.

Physics - 10.07.2019
Physics Professor’s Research Sheds Light on the Mass of Sound
Most of us normally think that sound travels through the air without shape or substance. A recent study building on research conducted by Carnegie Mellon University Assistant Professor of Physics Riccardo Penco has shown that sound waves actually have a small amount of mass that is in a possibly exotic form.

Physics - Health - 09.07.2019
Light touch to improve rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis
A new way of detecting rheumatoid arthritis using infrared light could offer an objective way of diagnosing the disease and monitoring treatment effectiveness, a University of Birmingham study shows. The rapid, non-invasive technique could help clinicians diagnose the disease earlier, and assess how effectively the selected treatment is controlling the progression of the disease.

Life Sciences - Physics - 09.07.2019
Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?
Tungsten as interstellar radiation shielding?
Metallophilic microorganisms could benefit from the heavy metal in harsh survival conditions A boiling point of 5900 degrees Celsius and diamond-like hardness in combination with carbon: tungsten is the heaviest metal, yet has biological functions - especially in heat-loving microorganisms. A team led by Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna report for the first time rare microbial-tungsten interactions at the nanometer range.

Physics - Electroengineering - 09.07.2019
On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves
On-demand control of terahertz and infrared waves
Researchers from the University of Geneva and the University of Manchester have confirmed experimentally the theory of very strong magneto-optical resonance in graphene. The ability to control infrared and terahertz waves using magnetic or electric fields is one of the great challenges in physics that could revolutionise opto-electronics, telecommunications and medical diagnostics.

Physics - 09.07.2019
A connection between quantum correlations and spacetime geometry
A connection between quantum correlations and spacetime geometry
Researchers of the Academy explore the consequences of locality for measurements distributed in spacetime. Their article has now been published in the Nature journal "Quantum Information". Locality is a fundamental principle behind all physical interactions. It says that each physical system can only interact with other systems in its immediate vicinity, so that interactions between two distant objects must be mediated by an intermediary.

Physics - Innovation - 08.07.2019
New Semiconductor Technology for Future Data Communications
New Semiconductor Technology for Future Data Communications
Researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. A team from Cardiff University worked to innovate an ultrafast and highly sensitive ‘avalanche photodiode' (APD) that creates less electronic ‘noise' than its silicon rivals.
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