News 2019



Results 41 - 60 of 493.

Physics - Materials Science - 27.11.2019
What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?
White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne. Until now, it has been a mystery to scientists how these white blood cells - called cytotoxic lymphocytes - avoid being killed by their own actions and the discovery could help explain why some tumours are more resistant than others to recently developed cancer immunotherapies.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 25.11.2019
Space research at KU Leuven: missions that inspire big dreams
Space research at KU Leuven: missions that inspire big dreams
Let's first state the obvious: the universe is endlessly fascinating. When the first ever picture of a black hole was released this spring, it easily made front pages.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 25.11.2019
Imperial among UK institutions building parts for new £30m neutrino detector
Imperial among UK institutions building parts for new £30m neutrino detector
Researchers at Imperial are starting work on a huge new neutrino experiment, aiming to understand the origin and structure of the universe. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), to be assembled in the US, will have components designed and built by institutions across the UK, including Imperial.

Physics - Electroengineering - 22.11.2019
New method for using spin waves in magnetic materials
New method for using spin waves in magnetic materials
Smaller, faster, more energy-efficient - this is the goal that developers of electronic devices have been working towards for years. In order to be able to miniaturize individual components of mobile phones or computers for example, magnetic waves are currently regarded as promising alternatives to conventional data transmission functioning by means of electric currents.

Physics - Computer Science - 22.11.2019
A "simulation booster" for nanoelectronics
Two research groups from ETH Zurich have developed a method that can simulate nanoelectronics devices and their properties realistically, quickly and efficiently. This offers a ray of hope for the industry and data centre operators alike, both of which are struggling with the (over)heating that comes with increasingly small and powerful transistors.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 21.11.2019
Experiment to increase understanding of the universe secures £30m
UCL scientists working to understand neutrinos and antimatter through DUNE (the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) will benefit from the UK's latest multi-million pound investment in the project. The DUNE project brings together more than 1,000 physicists from the UK and 31 countries from Asia, Europe and the Americas to build the world's most advanced neutrino observatory, which could lead to profound changes in our understanding of the universe.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 21.11.2019
New Geochemistry Technique Yields Clues about Earth’s Earliest Days
Half a century ago, in lab nicknamed the "Lunatic Asylum" in the Charles Arms Laboratory of the Geological Sciences, the late Gerald Wasserburg constructed the first-ever digital mass spectrometer. That device, dubbed the Lunatic I, revolutionized the field of geochemistry by increasing by an order of magnitude the precision with which isotope ratios could be measured; isotopes are the "flavors" of elements and vary based on the number of neutrons they have in their atomic nuclei.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 20.11.2019
Cosmic explosions: detecting the highest-energy light
The most energetic form of light has been detected from a distant but powerful cosmic explosion known as a 'gamma-ray burst' for the first time, by an international team including UCL physicists using a UCL-built space telescope onboard NASA's Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. The discovery and in particular, the unknown mechanisms that cause extremely high-energy light to be emitted in the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB).

Physics - Materials Science - 20.11.2019
The Beauty of Imperfections: Linking Atomic Defects to 2D Materials' Electronic Properties
The Beauty of Imperfections: Linking Atomic Defects to 2D Materials’ Electronic Properties
Scientists at Berkeley Lab reveal oxygen's hidden talent for filling in atomic gaps in TMDs; and the surprising role of electron spin in conductivity Like any material, atomically thin, 2D semiconductors known as TMDs or transition metal dichalcogenides are not perfect, but their imperfections can actually be a good thing.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 20.11.2019
Stabilizing a cliff using biomineral binders
Stabilizing a cliff using biomineral binders
EPFL spin-off Medusoil has successfully tested its ground-stabilization process on cliffs subject to surface erosion. The company's biomineral-based solution can be used to stabilize sandy and gravelly subsoils to safeguard surrounding infrastructure. It is a long-lasting and easy-to-use alternative to industrial fluids - the production and use of which can be harmful to the environment.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 18.11.2019
How to make the world’s most powerful neutrino beam
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and its international partners on Nov. 14 broke ground on an innovative experiment that aims to answer some of the biggest questions about the universe.

Physics - 18.11.2019
A Remote Control for Everything Small
A Remote Control for Everything Small
Atoms, molecules or even living cells can be manipulated with light beams. At TU Wien a method was developed to revolutionize such "optical tweezers". They are reminiscent of the "tractor beam" in Star Trek: special light beams can be used to manipulate molecules or small biological particles. Even viruses or cells can be captured or moved.

Physics - 15.11.2019
A super-fast
A super-fast "light switch" for future cars and computers
Switching light beams quickly is important in many technological applications. Researchers at ETH have now developed an "electro-opto-mechanical" switch for light beams that is considerably smaller and faster than current models. This is relevant for applications such as self-driving cars and optical quantum technologies.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 14.11.2019
Professor’s study of ancient crystals sheds light on earth’s early years
Geoscience Professor John Valley at work in the Wisconsin Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer Lab (WiscSIMS) in Weeks Hall. Photo: Jeff Miller "Old" is a subjective term. Ask a five-year-old, and you might hear 'teenage." A mid-lifer might say '80." To University of Wisconsin-Madison professor of geosciences John Valley, age 71, "old" is 4-billion years plus.

Physics - Materials Science - 14.11.2019
New Material Breaks World Record Turning Heat into Electricity
New Material Breaks World Record Turning Heat into Electricity
A new type of material generates electrical current very efficiently from temperature differences. This allows sensors and small processors to supply themselves with energy wirelessly. Thermoelectric materials can convert heat into electrical energy. This is due to the so-called Seebeck effect: If there is a temperature difference between the two ends of such a material, electrical voltage can be generated and current can start to flow.

Chemistry - Physics - 14.11.2019
Observing changes in the chirality of molecules in real time
Chiral molecules - compounds that are mirror images of each other - play an important role in biological processes and in chemical synthesis. Chemists at ETH Zurich have now succeeded for the first time in using ultrafast laser pulses to observe changes in chirality during a chemical reaction in real time.

Chemistry - Physics - 14.11.2019
New synthesis approach for soluble silicon clusters
New synthesis approach for soluble silicon clusters
Theoretical calculations indicate that under certain conditions silicon can endow solar cells with a much higher efficiency. Small silicon clusters may provide a source of accordingly modified silicon. However, to date these clusters have not been accessible in soluble form, a prerequisite for flexible processing.

Physics - Chemistry - 13.11.2019
Space rock research could reveal origins of Earth’s oceans
The return of a space probe bearing samples from a distant asteroid is being eagerly anticipated by researchers from the University of Glasgow and Curtin University in Australia. Scientists from the School of Geographical and Earth Sciences will receive three miniscule precious pieces of the asteroid Ryugu when the uncrewed Hayabusa2 mission returns to Earth late next year after six years in space.

Physics - Chemistry - 12.11.2019
Scientists Explore Egyptian Mummy Bones With X-Rays and Infrared Light to Gain New Insight on Ancient Life
Scientists Explore Egyptian Mummy Bones With X-Rays and Infrared Light to Gain New Insight on Ancient Life
Researchers from Cairo University work with teams at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source to study soil and bone samples dating back 4,000 years Two researchers from Cairo University in Egypt brought 32 bone samples and two soil samples to study using X-ray and infrared light-based techniques at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source (ALS).

Physics - 11.11.2019
Magnets for the second dimension
Magnets for the second dimension
ETH scientists have developed cube-shaped magnetic building blocks that can be assembled into two-dimensional shapes and controlled by an external magnetic field. They can be used for soft robotics applications. If you've ever tried to put several really strong, small cube magnets right next to each other on a magnetic board, you'll know that you just can't do it.

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