News 2019



Results 41 - 60 of 1176.

Health - Pharmacology - 11.12.2019
Targeted therapy drug helps women with aggressive breast cancer live longer
A study led by UCLA researchers found that adding ribociclib, a targeted therapy drug, to standard hormone therapy significantly improves overall survival in postmenopausal women with advanced hormone-receptor positive/HER2- breast cancer, one of the most common types of the disease. The findings also show the combination treatment is beneficial at the time of recurrence and should become a first-line option in postmenopausal women with HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer.

Health - 11.12.2019
Flipping the script on novel cancer therapy leads to insights into lupus
Flipping the script on novel cancer therapy leads to insights into lupus
In the last decade, scientists discovered that blocking a key regulator of the immune system helped unleash the body's natural defenses against several forms of cancer, opening up a new era of cancer immunotherapy. Now Yale scientists have essentially flipped this script and found that when impaired a molecularly similar regulator can cause the damaging immune system attacks on skin and organs that are the hallmark of the autoimmune disease lupus, they report Dec.

Health - Pharmacology - 11.12.2019
After a heart attack, hearing and mobility can affect near-term mortality
A new study by Yale researchers shows that considering hearing and mobility improves doctors' ability to accurately predict six-month mortality for older heart attack patients. There has been a growing sense that functional impairments - of hearing and mobility, for example - may be relevant to establishing a prognosis for older patients, said lead author Sarwat Chaudhry, M.D. , associate professor of medicine (general medicine).

Health - Life Sciences - 11.12.2019
Chimpanzees may have evolved resistance to HIV precursor
Simian immunodeficiency virus, the monkeyand ape-infecting virus that HIV originated from, may have influenced the genetics of chimpanzees, finds a new UCL-led study. The virus is a leading contributor to differences between chimpanzee subspecies, according to the findings published in PLOS Genetics .

Health - Linguistics / Literature - 11.12.2019
Speech could be older than we thought
Speech could be older than we thought
For 50 years, the theory of the "descended larynx" has stated that before speech can emerge, the larynx must be in a low position to produce differentiated vowels. Monkeys, which have a vocal tract anatomy that resembles that of humans in the essential articulators (tongue, jaw, lips) but with a higher larynx, could not produce differentiated vocalizations.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.12.2019
Researchers create accurate model of organ scarring using stem cells in a lab
Every organ in the body is capable, to some extent, of repairing itself after an injury. As part of this process, scar tissue forms and then recedes to make room for normal tissue when healing is complete. However, when healing is disrupted — whether by chronic injury or disease — the cells that make up scar tissue can go rogue, continuously dividing and spreading until the scar eventually strangles the organ it was intended to help heal, which can lead to organ failure.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.12.2019
Father’s X chromosome may yield clues to higher rates of autoimmune disease in women
UCLA scientists have discovered one reason why autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in women than in men. While males inherit their mother's X chromosome and father's Y chromosome, females inherit X chromosomes from both parents. New research, which shows differences in how each of those X chromosomes is regulated, suggests that the X chromosome that females get from their father may help to explain their more active immune system.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.12.2019
Increasing food intake by swapping mitochondrial genomes
Increasing food intake by swapping mitochondrial genomes
To uncover the relationship between variation in genes and phenotypic diversity, geneticists use a set of fully sequenced fruit-fly genomes. But little is known about the variation in the mitochondrial genome, for which mutations are linked to an array of diseases. Now, EPFL scientists have created a high-resolution map of mitochondrial DNA variants in the fruit fly, connecting mitochondrial genes to metabolic traits and diseases.

Health - 10.12.2019
Water births are as safe as land births for mom, baby
oe中文 हिन्दी Portugus Español Share on: Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn A new study found that water births are no more risky than land births, and that women in the water group sustain fewer first and second-degree tears. University of Michigan researchers analyzed 397 waterbirths and 2025 land births from two midwifery practices.

Health - Social Sciences - 10.12.2019
Examining secondhand smoke and cardiovascular risks in children
New research from the University of Minnesota examines how secondhand smoke might impact children and adolescent cardiovascular health. Published in Pediatric Research , researchers studied the carotid artery in the neck, brachial artery in the upper arm and abdominal aorta right above the belly button in 298 people.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.12.2019
'Safety signals' may help slow down anxiety
’Safety signals’ may help slow down anxiety
For as many as one in three people, life events or situations that pose no real danger can spark a disabling fear, a hallmark of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressants help about half the people suffering from anxiety, but millions of others do not find sufficient relief from existing therapies.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.12.2019
Inhibition of gene helps overcome resistance to immunotherapy
Cancer immunology drugs, which harness the body's immune system to better attack cancer cells, have significantly changed the face of cancer treatment. People with aggressive cancers are now living longer, healthier lives. Unfortunately, cancer immunology therapy only works in a subset of patients. Now, a new study from scientists at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center helps explain why some people with advanced cancer may not respond to one of the leading immunotherapies, PD-1 blockade, and how a new combination approach may help overcome resistance to the immunotherapy drug.

Psychology - Health - 09.12.2019
'Clingy' spouses face greater health risks after partner dies
’Clingy’ spouses face greater health risks after partner dies
"Clingy” spouses - whether spending every waking moment with their partners or constantly telephoning when they're not together - are at greater risk for heart problems and poor mental health after their spouses die, according to new research from psychologists at Rice. The study, "Attachment orientations and loss adjustment among bereaved spouses,” examined mental and physical health outcomes for people who recently lost a spouse.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.12.2019
New tool predicts three-dimensional organization of human chromosomes
University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have developed a computational tool that can accurately predict the three-dimensional interactions between regions of human chromosomes. The predictive tool is a boon for researchers studying how cells control the activity of genes. The fine-tuned interaction between regulatory signals and the three-dimensional architecture of chromosomes helps explain how cells achieve their key functions, and how they go haywire, as happens in diseases such as cancer.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.12.2019
Probiotics and prebiotics work differently in girls and boys according to piglet study
Baby boy's and girl's immune systems respond differently to prebiotics and probiotics, according to new research. The paper published in Frontiers in Immunology today [9 December] suggests that differences in male and female immunity begin much earlier than previously thought. The team from the Universities of Bristol and Reading found that 28-day old piglets produced very different levels of immune cells, antibodies and other immune-associated molecules depending on their sex, contradicting previous evidence suggesting that the difference in immunity begins during puberty.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.12.2019
Deeper understanding of irregular heartbeat may lead to more effective treatment
Researchers at Imperial have shown how the chaotic electrical signals underlying irregular heart rhythms lead to the failure of standard treatments. By modelling how electrical signals on the inside and the outside of the heart move across the muscle, researchers at Imperial College London have suggested why corrective surgery is not currently always beneficial.

Health - 06.12.2019
Grow your own blood vessel model in a dish
Personalised blood vessel testing kit could unravel causes and treatments for heart attack, stroke and vascular dementia, find scientists. Researchers can now grow a model of a patient's blood vessel wall in a dish from a small sample of their blood. The technology could be used to create personalised testing kits for new drugs and advance research into diseases of the blood vessels including stroke, heart attack and vascular dementia.

Health - 06.12.2019
One third of premature deaths linked to social inequality
Nearly 900,000 deaths in England could have been avoided in a more equal society, according to a UCL study of 2.5 million premature deaths over the last 16 years. The study, published today in The Lancet Public Health , found that one in three deaths before the age of 75 are attributable to socio-economic and regional health inequalities.

Health - 06.12.2019
Tick box questionnaire could significantly improve oesophageal cancer survival rates
A simple health questionnaire could be a highly effective tool to pre-screen people for early signs of oesophageal cancer, enabling much earlier diagnosis and treatment, finds a UCL-led study. The research, published in Lancet Digital Health , used artificial intelligence to analyse a large oesophageal cancer dataset, known as BEST2 (1,299 patients), to establish which health factors were common in those individuals who had Barrett's oesophagus.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.12.2019
How do you cultivate a healthy plant microbiome?
Plant leaves harbor a diverse microbial community, as seen in this plate of agar stamped with the leaf of a greenhouse-grown tomato plant. After incubating for two days, the bacteria from the leaf grew into visible colonies. (Photo courtesy of Britt Koskella lab) Scientists are homing in on what a healthy human microbiome looks like, mapping the normal bacteria that live in and on the healthy human body.