News 2019


Materials Science

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Materials Science - Life Sciences - 30.12.2019
Materials ’remember’ past stresses as they age
A new study by University of Chicago and University of Pennsylvania scientists shows that as materials age, they 'remember' prior stresses and external forces, which researchers can then use to create new materials with unique properties.    The study, published Dec. 20 in  Science Advances , found that certain types of materials have a "memory" of how they were processed, stored, and manipulated.

Materials Science - Physics - 26.12.2019
How a ’vegetable ion’ helped scientists unlock theory behind transitions of materials
A puddle freezing on the sidewalk, your humidifier pumping out water vapor, salt trucks melting icy streets-wintertime in Chicago is full of examples of a physics phenomenon called a "phase transition," in which a material changes state. Physicists are fascinated by this phenomenon, which is useful in technology from the basic steam turbine all the way to MRIs.   In a paper published Dec.

History / Archeology - Materials Science - 19.12.2019
New archaeological discoveries reveal birch bark tar was used in medieval England
Scientists from the University of Bristol and the British Museum, in collaboration with Oxford Archaeology East and Canterbury Archaeological Trust, have, for the first time, identified the use of birch bark tar in medieval England - the use of which was previously thought to be limited to prehistory.

Health - Materials Science - 19.12.2019
Skin and Mucous Membrane Lesions as Complication of Pneumonia
Skin and Mucous Membrane Lesions as Complication of Pneumonia
Painful inflammatory lesions of the skin and mucous membranes may occur in children who develop bacterial pneumonia. A research group at the University Children's Hospital Zurich has recently developed a new diagnostic blood test, which reliably diagnoses bacteria as the causative pathogen at an early stage, allowing more specific treatment and prediction about prognosis.

Materials Science - Agronomy / Food Science - 19.12.2019
Making chocolate colourful
Making chocolate colourful
ETH researchers are making chocolates shimmer in rainbow colours without the addition of colourants. They have found a way to imprint a special structure on the surface of the chocolate to create a targeted colour effect. By playing this video, you agree to the use of cookies by YouTube This may include analytics, personalization, and ads.

Materials Science - Physics - 18.12.2019
New coating hides temperature change from infrared cameras
An ultrathin coating developed by University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers upends a ubiquitous physics phenomenon of materials related to thermal radiation: The hotter an object gets, the brighter it glows. The new coating - engineered from samarium nickel oxide, a unique tunable material - employs a bit of temperature trickery.

Materials Science - Health - 16.12.2019
Berkeley Lab's Top 10 Science Stories of 2019
Berkeley Lab’s Top 10 Science Stories of 2019
From the health benefits of cool roofs to an experiment to search for dark matter, Berkeley Lab researchers did a lot of science! The breadth of science conducted by researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is vast, spanning from fundamental questions about the nature of the universe to solutions for saving energy in our homes and offices.

Materials Science - 14.12.2019
Researchers break the geometric limitations of moiré pattern in graphene heterostructures
Researchers at the University of Manchester in collaboration with CMT theorists (M. Andelkovic, S. Milovanovic, L. Covaci and F. Peeters) have uncovered interesting phenomena when multiple two-dimensional materials are combined into van der Waals heterostructures (layered 'sandwiches' of different materials).

Physics - Materials Science - 12.12.2019
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Scientists at Berkeley Lab convert diamonds' atomic flaws into atomic sensors with front-row seats to a quantum world of materials under extreme pressure S ince their invention more than 60 years ago, diamond anvil cells have made it possible for scientists to recreate extreme phenomena - such as the crushing pressures deep inside the Earth's mantle - or to enable chemical reactions that can only be triggered by intense pressure, all within the confines of a laboratory apparatus that you can safely hold in the palm of your hand.

Materials Science - 10.12.2019
Stretchy and squeezy soft sensors one step closer thanks to new bonding method
Imperial College London bioengineers have found a way to create stretchy and squeezy soft sensing devices by bonding rubber to electrical components. Stretchy and squeezy soft sensors that can fit around body parts or squeezed in hands could be used for applications including sports and rehabilitation after injury or stroke.

Physics - Materials Science - 09.12.2019
How Electrons Break the Speed Limit
In work that may have broad implications for the development of new materials for electronics, Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. To do so, they relied only on principles from quantum mechanics and developed an accurate new computational method.

Earth Sciences - Materials Science - 06.12.2019
Gaining insight into the energy balance of earthquakes
Gaining insight into the energy balance of earthquakes
Researchers at EPFL's Computational Solid Mechanics Laboratory and the Weizmann Institute of Science have modeled the onset of slip between two bodies in frictional contact. Their work, a major step forward in the study of frictional rupture, could give us a better understanding of earthquakes - including how far and fast they travel.

Materials Science - Health - 03.12.2019
Paradoxical replacement tissue for medicine
Paradoxical replacement tissue for medicine
A material that thickens when you pull on it seems to contradict the laws of physics. However, the so-called auxetic effect, which also occurs in nature, is interesting for a number of applications. A new Empa study recently published in "Nature Communications" shows how this amazing behavior can be improved - and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage.

Physics - Materials Science - 02.12.2019
When Solids and Liquids Meet: In Nanoscale Detail
When Solids and Liquids Meet: In Nanoscale Detail
Infrared technique at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source probes active chemistry at the solid-liquid interface How a liquid interacts with the surface of a solid is important in batteries and fuel cells, chemical production, corrosion phenomena, and many biological processes. To better understand this solid-liquid interface, researchers at Berkeley Lab developed a platform to explore these interactions under real conditions ("in situ") at the nanoscale using a technique that combines infrared light with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe.

Computer Science - Materials Science - 02.12.2019
New Software Aims To Make Science More Replicable
Every field in science and engineering employs highly specialized equipment: surface area analyzers, nanosizers, recording membrane osmometers. This equipment is often incredibly specific, designed for just a single function, but it's essential for performing accurate, replicable research. And without the ability to replicate the research of other scientists, the validity of science itself falls apart.

Physics - Materials Science - 29.11.2019
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Physicists from Switzerland, Germany, and France have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors. One of the main challenges in materials science research is to achieve high tunability of the optical properties of semiconductors at room temperature.

Physics - Materials Science - 27.11.2019
What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?
White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne. Until now, it has been a mystery to scientists how these white blood cells - called cytotoxic lymphocytes - avoid being killed by their own actions and the discovery could help explain why some tumours are more resistant than others to recently developed cancer immunotherapies.

Materials Science - Health - 22.11.2019
Protection for pacemakers
Protection for pacemakers
A protective membrane for cardiac pacemakers developed at ETH Zurich has proved successful in animal trials in reducing the undesirable build-up of fibrotic tissue around the implant. The next step is to test the protective membrane in patients. ETH scientists have developed a special protective membrane made of cellulose that significantly reduces the build-up of fibrotic tissue around cardiac pacemaker implants, as reported in the current issue of the journal Biomaterials.

Materials Science - Mechanical Engineering - 21.11.2019
Eliminating cracks in 3D-printed metal components
Eliminating cracks in 3D-printed metal components
Researchers at EPFL have developed a new laser 3D-printing technique to manufacture metal components with unprecedented resistance to high temperature, damage and corrosion. The method has applications in fields ranging from aerospace to power-generating turbines. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has revolutionized the way components are made, setting new standards in terms of production speed when geometric complexity is high.

Materials Science - 21.11.2019
Software to speed up textile development
Software to speed up textile development
Whether for sports, at work or in the living room - depending on activity and environment, our clothing has to meet different demands. Empa scientists have developed a model that predicts how well a given garment will keep us warm. The crucial factor is the air cushion between our body and the outermost layer of clothing.
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