News 2019



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Physics - Materials Science - 12.12.2019
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Tiny Quantum Sensors Watch Materials Transform Under Pressure
Scientists at Berkeley Lab convert diamonds' atomic flaws into atomic sensors with front-row seats to a quantum world of materials under extreme pressure S ince their invention more than 60 years ago, diamond anvil cells have made it possible for scientists to recreate extreme phenomena - such as the crushing pressures deep inside the Earth's mantle - or to enable chemical reactions that can only be triggered by intense pressure, all within the confines of a laboratory apparatus that you can safely hold in the palm of your hand.

Physics - Chemistry - 11.12.2019
Heat energy leaps through empty space, thanks to quantum weirdness
In a surprising new study, University of California, Berkeley, researchers show that heat energy can travel through a complete vacuum thanks to invisible quantum fluctuations. To conduct the challenging experiment, the team engineered extremely thin silicon nitride membranes, which they fabricated in a dust-free clean room, and then used optic and electronic components to precisely control and monitor the temperature of the membranes when they were locked inside a vacuum chamber.

Physics - 11.12.2019
CEA-Leti and partners demonstrate potentially scalable readout system for large arrays of quantum dots
'Results Hold promise for Fast, Accurate Single-Shot Readout 'Of Foundry-Compatible Si MOS Spin Qubits' 'SAN FRANCISCO ' Dec. 11, 2019 ' Leti, a technology research institute of CEA Tech, and its research partners have demonstrated a potentially scalable readout technique that could be fast enough for high-fidelity measurements in large arrays of quantum dots.

Physics - Chemistry - 10.12.2019
How to induce magnetism in graphene
How to induce magnetism in graphene
Graphene, a two-dimensional structure made of carbon, is a material with excellent mechanical, electronic and optical properties. However, it did not seem suitable for magnetic applications. Together with international partners, Empa researchers have now succeeded in synthesizing a unique nanographene predicted in the 1970s, which conclusively demonstrates that carbon in very specific forms has magnetic properties that could permit future spintronic applications.

Physics - Materials Science - 09.12.2019
How Electrons Break the Speed Limit
In work that may have broad implications for the development of new materials for electronics, Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. To do so, they relied only on principles from quantum mechanics and developed an accurate new computational method.

Physics - Chemistry - 07.12.2019
Liquid flow is influenced by a quantum effect in water
Liquid flow is influenced by a quantum effect in water
Researchers at EPFL have discovered that the viscosity of solutions of electrically charged polymers dissolved in water is influenced by a quantum effect. This tiny quantum effect influences the way water molecules interact with one another. Yet, it can lead to drastic changes in large-scale observations.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 06.12.2019
Analysis: A spacecraft is starting to unravel the sun’s biggest mysteries
NASA's Parker Solar Probe is going closer to the sun than any spacecraft has been before - Dr Daniel Verscharen (UCL Space & Climate Physics) writes about the findings so far. If you ask a child to paint a picture of the sun, you will most likely get a bright yellow circle on a piece of paper. This is actually quite accurate, given that the sun is a ball of hot gas and that its surface (called the photosphere) mostly shines in bright yellow light.

Physics - Electroengineering - 06.12.2019
In surprise breakthrough, scientists create quantum states in everyday electronics
After decades of miniaturization, the electronic components we've relied on for computers and modern technologies are now starting to reach fundamental limits. Faced with this challenge, engineers and scientists around the world are turning toward a radically new paradigm: quantum information technologies.

Physics - Electroengineering - 06.12.2019
Electronic map reveals 'rules of the road' in superconductor
Electronic map reveals ’rules of the road’ in superconductor
Band structure map exposes iron selenide's enigmatic electronic signature Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road” for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor.

Physics - Chemistry - 05.12.2019
SLAC scientists invent a way to see attosecond electron motions with an X-ray laser
SLAC Overview Our Mission, Vision & Values SLAC By The Numbers Director's Office Past SLAC Directors and Deputy Directors Wolfgang (Pief) K. H.

Chemistry - Physics - 05.12.2019
First field measurements of laughing gas isotopes
First field measurements of laughing gas isotopes
Thanks to a newly developed laser spectrometer, Empa researchers can for the first time show which processes in grassland lead to nitrous oxide emissions. The aim is to reduce emissions of this potent greenhouse gas by gaining a better understanding of the processes taking place in the soil. Nitrous oxide (N2O, also known as laughing gas) is one of the most important greenhouse gases.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 04.12.2019
Closest-ever approach to the Sun gives new insights into the solar wind
The Parker Solar Probe spacecraft, which has flown closer to the Sun than any mission before, has found new evidence of the origins of the solar wind. NASA's Parker Solar Probe was launched in August 2018. Its first results are published today in a series of four papers in Nature , with Imperial College London scientists among those interpreting some of the key data to reveal how the solar wind is accelerated away from the surface of the Sun.

Environment - Physics - 04.12.2019
Early climate modelers got global warming right, new report finds
Climate skeptics have long raised doubts about the accuracy of computer models that predict global warming, but it turns out that most of the early climate models were spot-on, according to a look-back by climate scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and NASA.

Physics - Chemistry - 04.12.2019
Freeze Frame: Scientists Capture Atomic-Scale Snapshots of Artificial Proteins
Freeze Frame: Scientists Capture Atomic-Scale Snapshots of Artificial Proteins
Berkeley Lab scientists adapt microscopy technique to build and image peptoid nanosheets with unprecedented atomic precision P rotein-like molecules called "polypeptoids" (or "peptoids," for short) have great promise as precision building blocks for creating a variety of designer nanomaterials, like flexible nanosheets - ultrathin, atomic-scale 2D materials.

Physics - 04.12.2019
Donut-shaped orbitals and Ising magnetism in Ca3Co2O6
Donut-shaped orbitals and Ising magnetism in Ca3Co2O6 The research teams of Hao Tjeng from the MPI-CPfS, Andrea Severing from the University of Cologne, Antoine Maignan from CRISMAT Laboratory Caen, and Maurits Haverkort from the University of Heidelberg have succeeded in determining the electronic orbital that is responsible for the Ising magnetism in Ca3Co2O6.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 04.12.2019
Parker Solar Probe’s first discoveries: Odd phenomena in space weather, solar wind
Last summer, NASA's Parker Solar Probe split the predawn skies in a blaze of light as it headed closer to the sun than any other spacecraft. Named for pioneering University of Chicago astrophysicist Eugene Parker, the probe has now made three of its 24 planned passes through the sun's corona-enough for scientists to announce their first discoveries.

Physics - Materials Science - 02.12.2019
When Solids and Liquids Meet: In Nanoscale Detail
When Solids and Liquids Meet: In Nanoscale Detail
Infrared technique at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source probes active chemistry at the solid-liquid interface How a liquid interacts with the surface of a solid is important in batteries and fuel cells, chemical production, corrosion phenomena, and many biological processes. To better understand this solid-liquid interface, researchers at Berkeley Lab developed a platform to explore these interactions under real conditions ("in situ") at the nanoscale using a technique that combines infrared light with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe.

Physics - Materials Science - 29.11.2019
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Controlling the optical properties of solids with acoustic waves
Physicists from Switzerland, Germany, and France have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors. One of the main challenges in materials science research is to achieve high tunability of the optical properties of semiconductors at room temperature.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 28.11.2019
Underwater telecom cables make superb seismic network
The oceans are criss-crossed by telecommunications cables, as illustrated by this graphic predicting the fiber-optic cables that will be operational by 2021, many of them (yellow) owned by private companies like Google and Microsoft. These cables could serve a dual purpose as seismic stations to monitor earthquakes and fault systems over the 70% of Earth covered by water.

Chemistry - Physics - 27.11.2019
An electron highway headed for methanol
An electron highway headed for methanol
Making methanol just got a lot easier, now that chemists at Yale have opened up a new electron highway. The discovery, published online Nov. 27 , finds a novel solution for two chemical tasks: producing methanol - a volatile, liquid fuel that is prized by industry - and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.