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Physics - Materials Science - 05.08.2020
May the force be with you: detecting ultrafast light by its force
A McGill research team has developed a new technique to detect nano-sized imperfections in materials. They believe this discovery will lead to improvements in the optical detectors used in a wide range of technologies, from cell phones to cameras and fiber optics, as well as in solar cells. The researchers, led by Professor Peter Grutter from McGill's Physics Department, used atomic force microscopy to detect the ultrafast forces that arise when light interacts with matter.

Pharmacology - Health - 05.08.2020
Inappropriate prescriptions sending hospitalized seniors back to the ER
Two in three hospitalized seniors are prescribed drugs that should be avoided by older adults, increasing the risk of injury and adverse drug reactions. Improving hospital prescribing practices can reduce the frequency of inappropriate medications and resulting harm, according to a new study led by McGill University researchers.

Environment - 05.08.2020
Reveals microplastic content levels in seafood
Reveals microplastic content levels in seafood
Levels of plastic contamination has been found in samples of popular seafood such as prawns, oysters and crabs, with the highest content found in sardines, according to University of Queensland research. Lead author PhD candidate Francisca Ribeiro from UQ's Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences said the study was an important step to understanding the potential harm microplastics in seafood could have on human health.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.08.2020
Your brain gets bigger if you're anxious and depressed
Your brain gets bigger if you’re anxious and depressed
Researchers have found depression is linked to areas of the brain shrinking in size but when depression is paired with anxiety one area of the brain becomes "significantly" larger.

Physics - 04.08.2020
Scientists at CERN help take one step closer to understanding the Higgs boson
Scientists at CERN help take one step closer to understanding the Higgs boson
New results have been announced by particle physicists at CERN, including a team led by Oxford scientists, that will move them closer to understanding the basic forces that shape our universe. The ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have today announced their observation of a phenomenon that has never been seen before, where the Higgs boson decays into two elementary particles, called muons.

Physics - Health - 04.08.2020
SLAC’s new X-ray beamline aids COVID-19 research
Scientists are deploying this state-of-the-art X-ray crystallography facility to study biological molecules related to the COVID-19 pandemic. There's a new bright spot at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource: Beam Line 12-1, an experimental station devoted to determining the structures of biological macromolecules with high brilliance X-rays.

Health - Life Sciences - 04.08.2020
UCLA launches major mental health study to discover insights about depression
While the capability to diagnose cancer and heart problems has advanced by giant steps in recent years, methods to detect depression have stubbornly stayed the same for more than a century: Observe patients, and ask them how they are doing. UCLA has launched a major new study, sponsored by and in collaboration with Apple, designed to help revolutionize detection and treatment of depression.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 04.08.2020
Key brain region was
Key brain region was "recycled" as humans developed the ability to read
Part of the visual cortex dedicated to recognizing objects appears predisposed to identifying words and letters, a study finds. Humans began to develop systems of reading and writing only within the past few thousand years. Our reading abilities set us apart from other animal species, but a few thousand years is much too short a timeframe for our brains to have evolved new areas specifically devoted to reading.

Health - Social Sciences - 04.08.2020
Testing and tracing must be scaled-up to prevent second COVID-19 wave
A second COVID-19 peak can be prevented if enough people are tested and traced with schools opening and more people returning to workplaces, finds research co-led by UCL and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). In the study, published today in The  Lancet Child and Adolescent Health the authors used mathematical modelling calibrated to the UK epidemic to explore the impact of combining test-trace-isolate (TTI) strategies with reopening schools and society from September 2020.

Health - Pharmacology - 04.08.2020
Immunotherapy biomarker discovery could benefit thousands with Type 1 diabetes
Scientists at UCL have discovered new biomarkers, which may identify those people with Type 1 diabetes who would benefit from the immunotherapy drug Abatacept, a finding which could eventually help thousands manage the disease more effectively. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means it is caused by the body's own immune system attacking healthy body tissues.

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 04.08.2020
Blood-thinner with no bleeding side-effects is here
Blood-thinner with no bleeding side-effects is here
In a study led by EPFL, scientists have developed a synthetic blood-thinner that, unlike all others, doesn't cause bleeding side-effects. The highly potent, highly selective, and highly stable molecule can suppress thrombosis while letting blood clot normally following injury. Patients who suffer from thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or stroke are usually put on drugs that help their blood flow more smoothly through their body.

Palaeontology - Life Sciences - 04.08.2020
Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
Between shark and ray: The evolutionary advantage of the sea angels
Threatened with extinction despite perfect adaptation Angel sharks are sharks, but with their peculiarly flat body they rather resemble rays. An international research team led by Faviel A. López-Romero and Jürgen Kriwet of the Institute of Palaeontology has now investigated the origin of this body shape.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.08.2020
VIDEOS: Five Ways Berkeley Lab is in the Fight Against COVID-19
For the past several months, teams of scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have utilized our world-class research facilities to contribute to the national response to COVID-19, resulting in a wide range of promising research.

Life Sciences - 04.08.2020
Green energy and better crops: tinted solar panels could boost farm incomes
Green energy and better crops: tinted solar panels could boost farm incomes
Researchers have demonstrated the use of tinted, semi-transparent solar panels to generate electricity and produce nutritionally-superior crops simultaneously, bringing the prospect of higher incomes for farmers and maximising use of agricultural land. Our calculations are a fairly conservative estimate of the overall financial value of this system.

Life Sciences - Materials Science - 04.08.2020
Cells relax their membrane to control protein sorting
Cells relax their membrane to control protein sorting
Researchers have succeeded in measuring the tension of the membrane of an organelle forming inside a cell. The tension in the outer membrane of cells plays an important role in a number of biological processes. A localised drop in tension, for example, makes it easier for the surface to be bending inward and form invaginations that will become free vesicles inside the cell.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 04.08.2020
Machine learning methods provide new insights into organic-inorganic interfaces
Machine learning methods provide new insights into organic-inorganic interfaces
Simulations at Graz University of Technology refute earlier theories on long-range charge transfer between organic and inorganic materials. Oliver Hofmann and his research group at the Institute of Solid State Physics at TU Graz are working on the optimization of modern electronics. A key role in their research is played by interface properties of hybrid materials consisting of organic and inorganic components, which are used, for example, in OLED displays or organic solar cells.

Environment - 04.08.2020
Chemicals Inhibit Decomposition Processes - by Damaging Biodiversity
Chemicals Inhibit Decomposition Processes - by Damaging Biodiversity
Declines in the diversity and abundance of decomposers explain reductions in plant decay rates under the influence of chemical stressors, but not added nutrients. These are the new insights of a study published in the open access journal eLife. The global meta-analysis conducted by researchers at the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Leipzig University (UL) and the University of Namur in Belgium highlights the main anthropogenic effects on the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems, and thus helps predicting the fate of different ecosystems around the world.

Environment - 04.08.2020
Identifying the Blind Spots of Soil Biodiversity
Identifying the Blind Spots of Soil Biodiversity
Soils harbour a substantial part of the world's biodiversity, yet data on the patterns and processes taking place below ground does not represent all relevant ecosystems and taxa. For example, tropical and subtropical regions largely remain a blind spot when it comes to soil biodiversity. This is one of the results of a new study published and led by scientists from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and Leipzig University.

Environment - Life Sciences - 04.08.2020
Dingoes have grown and pesticides might be to blame
Dingoes have grown and pesticides might be to blame
The average size of a dingo is increasing, but only in areas where poison-baits are used, a collaborative study between University of Sydney and UNSW shows. Dingoes getting bigger Dingoes have grown around 6-9 percent bigger over the past 80 years, new research from University of Sydney and UNSW shows - but the growth is only happening in areas where poison baiting is used.

Materials Science - 04.08.2020
Hydrogel paves way for biomedical breakthrough
Hydrogel paves way for biomedical breakthrough
Dubbed the "invisibility cloak", engineers at the University of Sydney have developed a hydrogel that allows implants and transplants to better and more safetly interact with surrounding tissue. Hydrogels are highly attractive for tissue engineering because of their functional and structural similarity to human body soft tissue," said Biomedical Engineering PhD student Ms Rashi Walia, who carried out the research in collaboration with the University of Sydney's School of Physics and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, as well as Tufts University in Massachusetts, USA.

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