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Social Sciences - Psychology - 04.12.2020
Strong social support decreases mental health problems in young adults
Early adulthood, a transitional life stage marked by major changes in social roles and responsibilities, can bring with it an increase of mental health problems. A team of McGill University researchers has found that young adults who perceived higher levels of social support reported fewer mental health problems.

Transport - 04.12.2020
On the way to optimised approach procedures
On the way to optimised approach procedures
Aircraft also make noise on approach, which is often underestimated. A research project involving Empa has shown that it is quite possible to reduce noise during approach, to avoid particularly loud approaches and at the same time to reduce fuel consumption. In the future, pilots shall receive software assistance to help them better manage the complex relationships between air traffic control, flight mechanics and environmental impact.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 04.12.2020
90 Years of Neutrino Science
90 Years of Neutrino Science
Scientists at Berkeley Lab have contributed much to the field since the Dec. 4, 1930, letter that theorized this particle's existence They come in three flavors and can transform among these different types as they travel. They pass through most matter undetected and uninterrupted. Tens of trillions of them are passing through your body in the time it takes to read this sentence.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 04.12.2020
Using a video game to understand the origin of emotions
Using a video game to understand the origin of emotions
Characterising our emotions is the subject of much debate, as is the identification of their neural substrates. A team from the University of Geneva has been examining the brain components of emotions, confirming that they are the brain's synchronised response to events. Emotions are complex phenomena that influence our minds, bodies and behaviour.

Physics - Chemistry - 04.12.2020
Spinach, a Key Ingredient in a Series of Groundbreaking Experiments at Freie Universität Berlin
X-ray experiments carried out at BESSY prove that photosystems from spinach can form manganese oxide nanoparticles - a product of oxygenic photosynthesis No 238/2020 from Dec 04, 2020 An interdisciplinary research team at Freie Universität led by Professor Holger Dau and Professor Robert Burnap from Oklahoma State University have proved that protein complexes in modern photosynthesis can form manganese oxide when exposed to light.

Astronomy / Space Science - 04.12.2020
Australia-bound asteroid sample may reveal life's origins
Australia-bound asteroid sample may reveal life’s origins
A Japanese space mission will deliver samples collected from asteroid Ryugu in a capsule to the outback desert of Woomera in South Australia this Sunday morning. A leading expert from The Australian National University (ANU) who will analyse the samples says they could provide major insights into the origin of life on Earth.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 03.12.2020
The same visual system for all primates
The same visual system for all primates
The world's smallest primate reveals the incredible preservation of our visual system through millions of years of evolution. Primates process visual information in front of their eyes, similar to pixels in a digital camera, using small computing units located in the visual cortex of their brains.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Bean plants fend off famished foes
Bean plants fend off famished foes
For a caterpillar, a green leaf can make a nice meal. But to the plant itself, it's an attack. And very hungry caterpillars can do a lot of damage as they eat their way through life. Plants can fight back, unleashing an array of chemical defenses to discourage wayward foragers - from releasing chemicals that attract caterpillar predators to secreting compounds that make the plant taste so foul that desperate caterpillars resort to cannibalism.

Economics / Business - 03.12.2020
Stimulus Relief Funds Increase Social Distancing to Stop Spread of COVID-19
Findings suggest economically vulnerable households need to leave the house more to work As case rates of COVID-19 reach new heights across the nation, many states and cities are tightening stay-at-home restrictions to stop the spread. New research suggests that that those suffering from economic hardships are less likely comply with new stay-at-home orders; however, these same U.S. residents would be more likely to adhere to the new public health guidelines if their households received stimulus funds.

Life Sciences - Environment - 03.12.2020
Flightless birds were more common before human-driven extinctions
Dr Ferran Sayol and Professor Tim Blackburn (both UCL Biosciences) discuss their new study, which found there would be at least four times as many flightless bird species on Earth today if it were not for human influences. When the first humans started to colonise all the regions of the world, many species went extinct.

Life Sciences - 03.12.2020
Scientists develop an evolutionary theory of stress
Scientists have created an evolutionary model to predict how animals should react in stressful situations. Almost all organisms have fast-acting stress responses, which help them respond to threats - but being stressed uses energy, and chronic stress can be damaging. The new study by an international team, including researchers from the Universities of Bristol and Exeter, suggests most animals remain stressed for longer than is optimal after a stress-inducing incident.

Life Sciences - Materials Science - 03.12.2020
Correctly Delivered and Integrated: How Proteins Find Their Place in the Cell
Correctly Delivered and Integrated: How Proteins Find Their Place in the Cell
Heidelberg Researchers determine the three-dimensional architecture of a molecular machine that inserts essential proteins into biomembranes Over a quarter of all proteins in a cell are found in the membrane, where they perform vital functions. To fulfil these roles, membrane proteins must be reliably transported from their site of production in the cell to their destination and correctly inserted into the target membrane.

Physics - Sport - 03.12.2020
An optical curveball
An optical curveball
Have you ever been amazed by a curveball goal scored by Diego Maradona, Lionel Messi or Christiano Ronaldo? Then you have - possibly without knowing it - been exposed to the Magnus effect: the fact that spinning objects tend to move along curved paths. In a new publication that appeared in Physical Review Letters this week, Robert Spreeuw shows that the same effect occurs to atoms moving through light - and that this effect has practical consequences.

Astronomy / Space Science - 03.12.2020
Leaving so soon? Unusual planetary nebula fades mere decades after it arrived
Leaving so soon? Unusual planetary nebula fades mere decades after it arrived
Stars are rather patient. They can live for billions of years, and they typically make slow transitions - sometimes over many millions of years - between the different stages of their lives. So when a previously typical star's behavior rapidly changes in a few decades, astronomers take note and get to work.

Environment - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Tire-related chemical is largely responsible for adult coho salmon deaths in urban streams
Tire-related chemical is largely responsible for adult coho salmon deaths in urban streams
Every fall more than half of the coho salmon that return to Puget Sound's urban streams die before they can spawn. In some streams, all of them die. But scientists didn't know why. But tire wear particles are a mixture of hundreds of different chemicals, so the team had a challenge ahead: How to find the culprit? The researchers started by sectioning the tire wear particle solution according to different chemical properties, such as removing all metals from the solution.

Physics - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Titanium Atom That Exists in Two Places at Once in Crystal to Blame for Unusual Phenomenon
Titanium Atom That Exists in Two Places at Once in Crystal to Blame for Unusual Phenomenon
Researchers discover why a perfect crystal is not good at conducting heat, although it seemingly should be The crystalline solid BaTiS 3 (barium titanium sulfide) is terrible at conducting heat, and it turns out that a wayward titanium atom that exists in two places at the same time is to blame. The discovery, made by researchers from Caltech, USC, and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was published on November 27 .

Astronomy / Space Science - 03.12.2020
Gaia: scientists take a step closer to revealing origins of our galaxy
An international team of astronomers, led by the University of Cambridge, announced the most detailed ever catalogue of the stars in a huge swathe of our Milky Way galaxy.

Sport - 03.12.2020
Teaching athletes about morality in sport can help reduce doping
Elite athletes can be persuaded not to take banned substances - either by appealing to their sense of morality or educating them about the risks of using performance-enhancing drugs, according to a new study. Researchers developed two separate intervention programmes - one targeting moral factors associated with doping likelihood, the other introducing doping and providing information about the health consequences of banned substances and the risks of sport supplements.

Environment - Life Sciences - 03.12.2020
Flightless birds more common globally before human-driven extinctions
There would be at least four times as many flightless bird species on Earth today if it were not for human influences, finds a study led by UCL researchers. The study, published in Science Advances , finds that flightlessness evolved much more frequently among birds than would be expected if you only looked at current species.

Health - Computer Science - 03.12.2020
AI now sees and hears COVID in your lungs
AI now sees and hears COVID in your lungs
DeepChest and DeepBreath, new deep learning algorithms developed at EPFL that identify patterns of COVID-19 in lung images and breath sounds, may help in the fight against other respiratory diseases and the growing challenge of antibiotic resistance. For Dr Mary-Anne Hartley, a medical doctor and researcher in EPFL's intelligent Global Health group (iGH), 2020 has been relentless.
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