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Environment - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global animal populations have on average declined by two-thirds in less than half a century, according to the WWF's Living Planet Report 2020 involving UCL researchers, released today. The Living Planet Index (LPI), provided by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), shows that factors believed to increase the planet's vulnerability to pandemics such as COVID-19 - including land-use change and the use and trade of wildlife - were also some of the drivers behind the 68% average decline in global mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish populations between 1970 and 2016.

Health - 10.09.2020
COVID-19 may have been in L.A. as early as last December, UCLA-led study suggests
"The pandemic has really highlighted our need for agile health care analytics that enable real-time symptom and disease surveillance using electronic health records data," the study authors said.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Previously unknown 'genetic vulnerability' in breast cancer cells target of research
Previously unknown ’genetic vulnerability’ in breast cancer cells target of research
The study, published in the scientific journal  Nature , has uncovered a genetic vulnerability present in nearly 10% percent of all breast cancers tumours, and found a way to target this vulnerability and selectively kill cancer cells. Each year, over five thousand newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in the UK alone will carry this particular genetic fault, a proportion roughly double that driven by hereditary mutations such as those in the well-known BRCA genes.

Health - 10.09.2020
Dashboard reveals COVID-19’s impact on Californians’ jobs, mental health
Canva/UCLA Center for Health Policy Research The data confirms that California's vulnerable groups are among those being hardest hit by the pandemic. With more than 13,000 deaths and more than 712,000 confirmed cases in California alone, the COVID-19 pandemic has already had profound and lasting effects on the nation's most populous state.

Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Binge-drinkers' brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
Binge-drinkers’ brains have to work harder to feel empathy for others
People who binge-drink show more extensive dysfunction across their brains than previously realised, a new study from the University of Sussex has shown. The research shows that binge-drinkers' brains have to put more effort into trying to feel empathy for other people in pain. The paper “Differential brain responses for perception of pain during empathic response in binge drinkers compared to non-binge drinkers? is published in the October 2020 edition of the Neuroimage: Clinical journal.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
Punctured lung affects almost one in a hundred hospitalised COVID-19 patients
As many as one in 100 patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 develop a pneumothorax - a 'punctured lung' - according to a study led by Cambridge researchers. Doctors need to be alert to the possibility of a punctured lung in patients with COVID-19, even in people who would not be thought to be typical at-risk patients Stefan Marciniak Like the inner tube of bicycle or car tyre, damage to the lungs can lead to a puncture.

Environment - 10.09.2020
Amphipods: a miraculous increase in biodiversity
Amphipods: a miraculous increase in biodiversity
Until recently, researchers assumed that Switzerland had around 20 native species of amphipods. Now, a project by the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and the University of Zurich has revealed that there are actually more than 40. It is always worth taking a closer look, because we can only protect the things that we know exist.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.09.2020
Discovery of four Covid-19 risk groups helps guide treatment
People who are admitted to hospital with Covid-19 can be divided into four distinct groups, according to data from the world's largest study of patients with the disease. Researchers identified the groups using clinical information and tests carried out upon arrival at hospital to predict the patients' risk of death - ranging from low to very high.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.09.2020
Restless nature of human spinal cord, non-invasive imaging reveals
Restless nature of human spinal cord, non-invasive imaging reveals
Scientists have developed a non-invasive technique for unraveling the complex dynamics generated by spinal cord circuits to unprecedented detail, a first in functional magnetic resonance imaging that may one day help diagnose spinal cord dysfunction or injury. The spinal cord roughly looks like a long tube, with a diameter of only 1.5 cm, and yet this crucial part of the nervous system is essential for controlling how our arms and legs move, for giving us our sense of touch as well as a notion of where our bodies are in space.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.09.2020
66 million years of Earth’s climate uncovered from ocean sediments
Changes in the Earth's climate over the last 66 million years have been revealed in unprecedented detail by a team involving UCL researchers, highlighting four distinctive climatic states and the natural millionand thousand-year variability that Earth's climate has experienced. , the new global "climate reference curve" created by the team is the first record to continually and accurately trace how the Earth's climate has changed since the great extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.09.2020
For an effective COVID vaccine, look beyond antibodies to T-cells
Depiction of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The spike proteins are in red. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Misplaced focus on antibodies Hellerstein points out that antibodies are not the primary protective response to infection by coronaviruses, the family of viruses that includes SARS-CoV-2.

Computer Science - Physics - 09.09.2020
Artificial intelligence explains hydrogen's behavior on giant planets
Artificial intelligence explains hydrogen's behavior on giant planets
Using computer simulations powered by machine-learning algorithms EPFL scientists have made an important breakthrough in understanding how hydrogen behaves on Saturn and Jupiter. The giant planets in our solar system are made mainly of hydrogen, mostly in a liquid state. Near the planets- surface, hydrogen exists in an insulating, molecular form - H2 - but closer to the center, it takes on a metallic form where individual atoms can move around freely.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 09.09.2020
AI shows how hydrogen becomes a metal inside giant planets
Researchers have used a combination of AI and quantum mechanics to reveal how hydrogen gradually turns into a metal in giant planets. The existence of metallic hydrogen was theorised a century ago, but what we haven't known is how this process occurs Bingqing Cheng Dense metallic hydrogen - a phase of hydrogen which behaves like an electrical conductor - makes up the interior of giant planets, but it is difficult to study and poorly understood.

Health - Pharmacology - 09.09.2020
Patients set to benefit from new guidelines on Artificial Intelligence health solutions
Patients could benefit from faster and more effective introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) innovations to diagnose and treat disease - thanks to the first international standards for reporting of clinical trials for AI. As evaluation of health interventions involving machine learning or other AI systems moves into clinical trials, an international group has developed guidelines aiming to improve the quality of these studies and ensure that they are reported transparently.

Life Sciences - 09.09.2020
Brain stimulation reduces dyslexia deficits
Brain stimulation reduces dyslexia deficits
Reading difficulties can be improved with non-invasive brain electrical stimulation, a hope for people suffering from dyslexia. Dyslexia is a frequent disorder of reading acquisition that affects up to 10% of the population, and is characterised by lifelong difficulties with written material. Although several possible causes have been proposed for dyslexia, the predominant one is a phonological deficit, a difficulty in processing language sounds.

Life Sciences - 09.09.2020
Neuroscientists expand possibilities for realistic prosthetic limbs
Recent rapid advances in neuroprosthetics-robotic prosthetic limbs that connect directly to the nervous system-suggest that it's only a matter of time before bionic arms are commonplace.  But the more scientists learn about how the brain directs intricate movements of the arm and hand, the more daunting the challenge of creating this transhuman future seems.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 09.09.2020
Revealing the secrets of high-energy cosmic particles
Revealing the secrets of high-energy cosmic particles
P-ONE: Initiative for a new, large-scale Neutrino Observatory in the Pacific Ocean The "IceCube" neutrino observatory deep in the ice of the South Pole has already brought spectacular new insights into cosmic incidents of extremely high energies. In order to investigate the cosmic origins of elementary particles with even higher energies, Prof. Elisa Resconi from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now started an international initiative to build a neutrino telescope several cubic kilometers in size in the northeastern Pacific.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 09.09.2020
Massive halo finally explains stream of gas swirling around the Milky Way
A view of the gas in the Magellanic System as it would appear in the night sky. The Magellanic Corona covers the entire sky while the Magellanic Stream is seen as gas flowing away from the two dwarf galaxies, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds. This image, taken directly from the numerical simulations, has been modified slightly for aesthetics.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.09.2020
Muscle aging: Stronger for longer
Muscle aging: Stronger for longer
With life expectancy increasing, age-related diseases are also on the rise, including sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass due to aging. Researchers from the University of Basel's Biozentrum have demonstrated that a well-known drug can delay the progression of age-related muscle weakness. The findings were recently published in -Nature Communications-.

Environment - Life Sciences - 09.09.2020
National parks preserve more than species
National parks preserve more than species
Study of Costa Rican rainforest shows national parks are more resilient than expected National parks are safe havens for endangered and threatened species, but an analysis by Rice University data scientists finds parks and protected areas can preserve more than species. In a study  published online this week in the journal Biotropica , Rice ecologists and data scientists Daniel Gorczynski and Lydia Beaudrot used thousands of camera trap photos to assess the large mammal diversity in the protected rainforest of Costa Rica's Braulio Carrillo National Park.

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