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Physics - Chemistry - 21.12.2020
The Mechanics of the Immune System
The Mechanics of the Immune System
When T-cells of our immune system become active, tiny traction forces at the molecular level play an important role. They have now been studied at TU Wien. Highly complicated processes constantly take place in our body to keep pathogens in check: The T-cells of our immune system are busy searching for antigens - suspicious molecules that fit exactly into certain receptors of the T-cells like a key into a lock.

Physics - Chemistry - 21.12.2020
Speeding Toward Improved Hydrogen Fuel Production
Speeding Toward Improved Hydrogen Fuel Production
A new nanomaterial helps obtain hydrogen from a liquid energy carrier, in a key step toward a stable and clean fuel source Hydrogen is a sustainable source of clean energy that avoids toxic emissions and can add value to multiple sectors in the economy including transportation, power generation, metals manufacturing, among others.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 18.12.2020
New mechanism of force transduction in muscle cells discovered
New mechanism of force transduction in muscle cells discovered
Researchers of Münster University reveal mechanobiological function of muscle-specific adhesion protein / Study published in "Nature Communications" The ability of cells to sense and respond to their mechanical environment is critical for many cellular processes but the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular mechanosensitivity are still unclear.

Physics - Chemistry - 18.12.2020
Artificial Intelligence Solves Schrödinger’s Equation
Scientists at Freie Universität Berlin develop a deep learning method to solve a fundamental problem in quantum chemistry No 255/2020 from Dec 18, 2020 A team of scientists at Freie Universität Berlin has developed an artificial intelligence (AI) method for calculating the ground state of the Schrödinger equation in quantum chemistry.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.12.2020
Muscling RNA Polymerase Off the DNA
Muscling RNA Polymerase Off the DNA
Researchers elucidate a unique molecular mechanism for efficient gene expression in pathogenic bacteria No 256/2020 from Dec 18, 2020 Three international research teams, including a consortium coordinated at Freie Universität Berlin, find that a motor protein, called HelD, acts like a "molecular bully" to pry the central enzyme of transcription, RNA polymerase, away from the DNA template, setting it free for the continued production of genetic messages.

Physics - Chemistry - 14.12.2020
Scientists Recruit New Atomic Heavyweights in Targeted Fight Against Cancer
Scientists Recruit New Atomic Heavyweights in Targeted Fight Against Cancer
New methods could lead to single-molecular systems for both diagnosing and treating cancer in real time A promising approach to treating cancer - called targeted alpha-particle therapy or TAT - could better harness the curative power of radiation treatments and lessen the severity of their more debilitating side effects.

Physics - Chemistry - 14.12.2020
Sheets of carbon nanotubes come in a rainbow of colors
Sheets of carbon nanotubes come in a rainbow of colors
Study: Nanotube films come in 466 colors, could be used in electronics, solar panels Nanomaterials researchers in Finland, the United States and China have created a color atlas for 466 unique varieties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The nanotube color atlas is detailed in a study in Advanced Materials about a new method to predict the specific colors of thin films made by combining any of the 466 varieties.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 14.12.2020
Thinking afresh about how cells respond to stress
Thinking afresh about how cells respond to stress
Just like people, cells get stressed too. A sudden drop in oxygen, overheating, or toxins can trigger a cascade of molecular changes that lead cells to stop growing, produce stress-protective factors, and form stress granules - proteins and RNA molecules huddled together into membrane-less organelles.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 08.12.2020
Vitamin boosts essential synthetic chemistry
Vitamin boosts essential synthetic chemistry
Rice lab discovers light-driven catalyst forms olefins for drug, agrochemical manufacturing Inspired by light-sensing bacteria that thrive near hot oceanic vents , synthetic chemists at Rice University have found a mild method to make valuable hydrocarbons known as olefins, or alkenes. Like the bacteria, the researchers use vitamin B12, eliminating harsh chemicals typically needed to make precursor molecules essential to the manufacture of drugs and agrochemicals.

Physics - Chemistry - 04.12.2020
Spinach, a Key Ingredient in a Series of Groundbreaking Experiments at Freie Universität Berlin
X-ray experiments carried out at BESSY prove that photosystems from spinach can form manganese oxide nanoparticles - a product of oxygenic photosynthesis No 238/2020 from Dec 04, 2020 An interdisciplinary research team at Freie Universität led by Professor Holger Dau and Professor Robert Burnap from Oklahoma State University have proved that protein complexes in modern photosynthesis can form manganese oxide when exposed to light.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Bean plants fend off famished foes
Bean plants fend off famished foes
For a caterpillar, a green leaf can make a nice meal. But to the plant itself, it's an attack. And very hungry caterpillars can do a lot of damage as they eat their way through life. Plants can fight back, unleashing an array of chemical defenses to discourage wayward foragers - from releasing chemicals that attract caterpillar predators to secreting compounds that make the plant taste so foul that desperate caterpillars resort to cannibalism.

Environment - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Tire-related chemical is largely responsible for adult coho salmon deaths in urban streams
Tire-related chemical is largely responsible for adult coho salmon deaths in urban streams
Every fall more than half of the coho salmon that return to Puget Sound's urban streams die before they can spawn. In some streams, all of them die. But scientists didn't know why. But tire wear particles are a mixture of hundreds of different chemicals, so the team had a challenge ahead: How to find the culprit? The researchers started by sectioning the tire wear particle solution according to different chemical properties, such as removing all metals from the solution.

Physics - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Titanium Atom That Exists in Two Places at Once in Crystal to Blame for Unusual Phenomenon
Titanium Atom That Exists in Two Places at Once in Crystal to Blame for Unusual Phenomenon
Researchers discover why a perfect crystal is not good at conducting heat, although it seemingly should be The crystalline solid BaTiS 3 (barium titanium sulfide) is terrible at conducting heat, and it turns out that a wayward titanium atom that exists in two places at the same time is to blame. The discovery, made by researchers from Caltech, USC, and the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was published on November 27 .

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 03.12.2020
Stopping a Runaway Train - How Bacteria Avoid Making Unwanted RNA
Stopping a Runaway Train - How Bacteria Avoid Making Unwanted RNA
Publication in Science by biochemists from Freie Universität Berlin and international colleagues No 235/2020 from Dec 03, 2020 An important gene expression process in bacteria seems to proceed differently than described in textbooks. This is the result of an international team of scientists headed by the Structural Biochemistry group at Freie Universität Berlin.

Chemistry - Physics - 03.12.2020
Chemists get peek at novel fluorescence
Chemists get peek at novel fluorescence
Rice scientists discover delayed phenomenon in carbon nanotubes That carbon nanotubes fluoresce is no longer a surprise. Finding a second level of fluorescence is surprising and potentially useful. How does it work? Wait for it. The Rice University lab of Bruce Weisman , a professor of chemistry who led the pioneering discovery of nanotube fluorescence in 2002, found that single-walled nanotubes emit a delayed secondary fluorescence when triggered by a multistep process in a solution with dye molecules and dissolved oxygen.

History / Archeology - Chemistry - 02.12.2020
African trade routes sketched out by mediaeval beads
An analysis of archaeological glass beads discovered in sub-Saharan West Africa brings to light the full extent of the region's international trade routes between the 7th and 13th centuries. The origin of glass beads dates back to early ancient times. The chemical composition of the beads and their morphological and technical characteristics can reveal where they come from; this information can then be used to reconstruct the trade channels between glass production areas and the sites where the beads were used at different times.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 30.11.2020
Molecular mechanism of long-term memory discovered
Molecular mechanism of long-term memory discovered
Researchers at the University of Basel have discovered a molecular mechanism that plays a central role in intact long-term memory. This mechanism is also involved in physiological memory loss in old age. Many life forms, from worms to humans, have differentiated memory functions, such as short-term and long-term memory.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 27.11.2020
How epithelial cells ward off viruses
How epithelial cells ward off viruses
The cytosolic sensor NLRP1 identifies viruses as non-self and triggers inflammatory responses The ability to differentiate between self and potentially harmful non-self is vital for the integrity and survival of organisms. In most organisms, the so-called innate immune system is responsible for the recognition of such intruders.

Chemistry - Physics - 25.11.2020
How nitrogen is transferred by a catalyst
How nitrogen is transferred by a catalyst
Catalysts with a metal-nitrogen bond can transfer nitrogen to organic molecules. In this process short-lived molecular species are formed, whose properties critically determine the course of the reaction and product formation. The key compound in a catalytic nitrogen-atom transfer reaction has now been analysed in detail by chemists at the Universitis of Göttingen Frankfurt and Stuttgart.

Physics - Chemistry - 24.11.2020
Stable Catalysts for New Energy
Stable Catalysts for New Energy
Crucial new technologies such as hydrogen production or carbon capture require new catalysts. Experiments show: It's not just the material that matters, but also its atomic surface structure. On the way to a CO2-neutral economy, we need to perfect a whole range of technologies - including the electrochemical extraction of hydrogen from water, fuel cells, or carbon capture.
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