news 2020


Earth Sciences

Results 121 - 140 of 158.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 03.04.2020
Plant root hairs key to reducing soil erosion
Soil erosion can have a devastating impact across the globe and a serious threat for modern agriculture. The increased demand for agriculture has led to forests and natural grasslands being converted to farm fields and pastures. However, many of the plants grown, such as coffee, cotton and palm oil, can significantly increase soil erosion beyond the soil's ability to maintain and renovate.

Earth Sciences - Computer Science - 31.03.2020
Shows potential for using fiber-optic networks to assess ground motions during earthquakes
Shows potential for using fiber-optic networks to assess ground motions during earthquakes
A new study from a University of Michigan researcher and colleagues at three institutions demonstrates the potential for using existing networks of buried optical fibers as an inexpensive observatory for monitoring and studying earthquakes. The study provides new evidence that the same optical fibers that deliver high-speed internet and HD video to our homes could one day double as seismic sensors.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 25.03.2020
Scientists get first look at cause of ’slow motion’ earthquakes
An international team of scientists has for the first time identified the conditions deep below the Earth's surface that lead to the triggering of so-called 'slow motion' earthquakes. These events, more commonly known as slow slip events, are similar to regular sudden and catastrophic earthquakes but take place on much longer timescales, usually from days to months.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 22.03.2020
Christmas Island discovery redraws map of life
Christmas Island discovery redraws map of life
The world's animal distribution map will need to be redrawn and textbooks updated, after researchers discovered the existence of 'Australian' species on Christmas Island. The University of Queensland's Professor Jonathan Aitchison said the finding revises the long-held understanding of the location of one of biology and geography's most significant barriers - the Wallace line.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 16.03.2020
A deep dive into the upward mobility of rocks
Yale geologists have identified the deepest pieces of Earth's crust ever found in the United States or Canada - in the rolling hills of northern Connecticut. Tiny bits of quartz and other minerals, inside garnet crystals, tell the story of a tectonic escalator ride that started 100 miles below Earth's surface, some 400 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 15.03.2020
Scientists quantify how wave power drives coastal erosion
The average power of waves hitting a coastline can predict how fast that coast will erode. Over millions of years, Hawaiian volcanoes have formed a chain of volcanic islands stretching across the Northern Pacific, where ocean waves from every direction, stirred up by distant storms or carried in on tradewinds, have battered and shaped the islands' coastlines to varying degrees.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 09.03.2020
Stone-age 'likes': Study establishes eggshell beads exchanged over 30,000 years
Stone-age ’likes’: Study establishes eggshell beads exchanged over 30,000 years
A clump of grass grows on an outcrop of shale 33,000 years ago. An ostrich pecks at the grass, and atoms taken up from the shale and into the grass become part of the eggshell the ostrich lays. A member of a hunter-gatherer group living in southern Africa's Karoo Desert finds the egg. She eats it, and cracks the shell into dozens of pieces.

Earth Sciences - Pharmacology - 06.03.2020
Seismic biomarkers in Japan Trench fault zone reveal history of large earthquakes
Channels McGill University News and Events Researchers find multiple faults with evidence of more than 10 meters of slip during past large earthquakes in the region hit by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami In the aftermath of the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake that struck off the coast of Japan in March 2011, scientists were stunned by the unprecedented 50 meters of displacement along the fault, which ruptured all the way to the surface of the seafloor.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 04.03.2020
Smallest Homo erectus cranium in Africa and diverse stone tools found at Gona, Ethiopia
Smallest Homo erectus cranium in Africa and diverse stone tools found at Gona, Ethiopia
An international research team led by scientists from the U.S. and Spain, and including a University of Michigan geologist, has discovered a nearly complete cranium of an early human ancestor, estimated to about 1.5 million years ago, and a partial cranium dated to about 1.26 million years ago, from the Gona study area in Ethiopia's Afar State.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 02.03.2020
Ocean changes almost starved life of oxygen
Chemical changes in the oceans more than 800 million years ago almost destroyed the oxygen-rich atmosphere that paved the way for complex life on Earth, finds new research involving UCL scientists. Then, as now, the planet had an oxidising atmosphere driven by phytoplankton, which release oxygen during photosynthesis.

Earth Sciences - Computer Science - 28.02.2020
Machine learning picks out hidden vibrations from earthquake data
Machine learning picks out hidden vibrations from earthquake data
Technique may help scientists more accurately map vast underground geologic structures. Over the last century, scientists have developed methods to map the structures within the Earth's crust, in order to identify resources such as oil reserves, geothermal sources, and, more recently, reservoirs where excess carbon dioxide could potentially be sequestered.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 28.02.2020
An iron-clad asteroid
An iron-clad asteroid
Mineralogists from Jena and Japan make a surprising discovery on soil samples of the asteroid "Itokawa". Mineralogists from Jena and Japan discover a previously unknown phenomenon in soil samples from the asteroid 'Itokawa': the surface of the celestial body is covered with tiny hair-shaped iron crystals.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 27.02.2020
Turning back the clock on blue carbon tolls a warning bell for the environment
A new study of a Scottish sea loch which reconstructs 5,000 years of its climate history is casting doubt on hopes that 'blue carbon' could help slow the rate of global heating. 'Blue carbon' is the term used to describe atmospheric carbon which has been captured by underwater vegetation and stored under the sea bed.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 26.02.2020
Machine learning reveals earth tremor and slip occur continuously, not intermittently
Machine learning reveals earth tremor and slip occur continuously, not intermittently
Cascadia findings also apply to San Andreas Fault and other earthquake zones, suggesting universal underlying physics that could someday support quake forecasting The work tells us that the physics of friction on faults appears to have universal characteristics-something we suspected but could not prove.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 26.02.2020
Stone tools reveal humans survived a volcanic super-eruption
Stone tools reveal humans survived a volcanic super-eruption
The recent discovery of stone tools in India has revealed that humans survived and coped with one of the largest volcanic events in human history. The intensity and impact of the historic Toba super-eruption in Indonesia sparked a long-running debate among researchers involving climatic, geological, archaeological and genetic evidence, until now.

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 24.02.2020
The seismicity of Mars
The seismicity of Mars
Fifteen months after the successful landing of the NASA InSight mission on Mars, first scientific analyses of ETH Zurich researchers and their partners reveal that the planet is seismically active. The recorded data enables a better understanding of the interior of Mars, the primary goal of the InSight mission.

Paleontology - Earth Sciences - 14.02.2020
Were dinosaurs warm blooded? Their eggshells say yes
Were dinosaurs warm blooded? Their eggshells say yes
A Yale-led study turns up the heat on a key question aboutádinosaurs' body temperature: Were they warm-blooded or cold-blooded? According to a new technique that analyzes the chemistry of dinosaur eggshells, the answer is warm. " Dinosaursásit at an evolutionary point between birds, which are warm-blooded, and reptiles, which are cold-blooded.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.02.2020
Plant nutrient map sheds light on carbon sinks
Natural areas that can absorb huge quantities of carbon dioxide could play a crucial role in combatting climate change. However, our ability to identify and employ these carbon sinks has been hobbled by a lack of information about where plants grow best. Now, research from Stanford University reveals a global map of areas where insufficient nutrients in the soil could limit plant growth.

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 10.02.2020
Reveals details of
Reveals details of "golf ball asteroid"
A tilted orbit may explain the asteroid Pallas' highly cratered surface. Asteroids come in all shapes and sizes, and now astronomers at MIT and elsewhere have observed an asteroid so heavily cratered that they are dubbing it the "golf ball asteroid." The asteroid is named Pallas, after the Greek goddess of wisdom, and was originally discovered in 1802.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 10.02.2020
Geothermal energy: drilling a 3,000 metres deep well
Geothermal energy: drilling a 3,000 metres deep well
Researchers from the University of Geneva have studied the seismic activity recorded during the drilling of a geothermal well and shown that it did not spark any major earthquake. Although stopping climate change is challenging, it is imperative to slow it down as soon as possible by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.