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Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 11.11.2020
Governments can curb over-fertilisation
Governments can curb over-fertilisation
Many countries could be using less nitrogen fertiliser in their agriculture without compromising their crop yields, as an international research team headed up by ETH scientists David Wüpper and Robert Finger are demonstrating. The world is awash with nitrogen. In agriculture, nitrogen is used as a fertiliser to increase output, but this causes one of the biggest environmental problems of our time.

Health - Environment - 11.11.2020
Lessons for handling COVID-19 from another animal virus
Lessons for handling COVID-19 from another animal virus
Stanford epidemiologist Stephen Luby discusses surprising results of a recent study on Nipah virus, a disease with no vaccine and a mortality rate of up to 70 percent. A little known virus may have a lot to teach us about dealing with COVID-19. Discovered 20 years ago, Nipah virus can spread from bats or pigs to humans.

Environment - Transport - 11.11.2020
Noise and light pollution alter bird reproduction
Noise and light pollution alter bird reproduction
Looking for a bird's'eye view of human impact? A new study provides the most comprehensive picture yet of how human-caused noise and light pollution affect birds in North America, including how these factors may interact with or mask the impacts of climate change. Recent troubling findings suggest that North American bird populations have declined sharply in the last few decades.

Life Sciences - Environment - 11.11.2020
The UB takes part in the genome sequencing of all birds worldwide
Bird 10,000 Genome.." The international consortium Bird 10,000 Genome Project (B10K) has sequenced the genome of 363 living bird species. From left to right, the experts Joan Ferrer Obiol, Jacob González-Solís (first line), Julio Rozas and Marta Riutort (second line). The study presents 257 new bird genomes that expand the sequenced genetic material during the first phase and expand the sequenced genetic material and shed light on the evolution of the genomic diversity among bird lineages.

Environment - 10.11.2020
Climate-adapted plant breeding
Climate-adapted plant breeding
Improvement of crops with seeds from gene banks Securing plant production is a global task. Using a combination of new molecular and statistical methods, a research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) was able to show that material from gene banks can be used to improve traits in the maize plant.

Life Sciences - Environment - 10.11.2020
Uncovering Novel Genomes from Earth's Microbiomes
Uncovering Novel Genomes from Earth’s Microbiomes
Despite advances in sequencing technologies and computational methods in the past decade, researchers have uncovered genomes for just a small fraction of Earth's microbial diversity. Because most microbes cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions, their genomes can't be sequenced using traditional approaches.

Astronomy / Space - Environment - 10.11.2020
Researchers model eruption on Jupiter's moon Europa
Researchers model eruption on Jupiter’s moon Europa
A new model shows how brine on Jupiter's moon Europa can migrate within the icy shell to form pockets of salty water that erupt to the surface when freezing. The findings, which are important for the upcoming Europa Clipper mission, may explain cryovolcanic eruptions across icy bodies in the solar system.

Life Sciences - Environment - 10.11.2020
Forecasting ecosystem changes through DNA
Forecasting ecosystem changes through DNA
The rapid, low-cost technique is the first to analyze DNA left behind in animals' feces to map out complex networks of species interactions in a terrestrial system. It could help redefine conservation as we know it, identify otherwise hard-to-find species and guide a global effort to rewild vast areas.

Environment - 09.11.2020
Pesticide Exposure Associated with Headaches in Children
Pesticide Exposure Associated with Headaches in Children
Children living in agricultural areas are likely to be exposed to a variety of pesticides during their daily lives, which may impair their neurodevelopment. The most vulnerable populations are families and farmworkers in lowand middle-income countries. In a study published in Environment International by Swiss TPH and partners at the University of Cape Town, researchers found that children in South Africa who engage in pesticide-related farm activities often have more headaches and possibly lower cognitive performance.

Life Sciences - Environment - 09.11.2020
Infection by parasites disturbs flight behaviour in shoals of fish
Infection by parasites disturbs flight behaviour in shoals of fish
In order to escape predators, many fish - including insects, fish and birds - have developed strategies for rapidly transmitting information on threats to others of their species. This information is transmitted within a group of hundreds, or even thousands, of individuals in (escape) waves. This collective response is also, in the case of fish, known as shoal behaviour.

Environment - Astronomy / Space - 09.11.2020
Hurricane-tracking CYGNSS satellite system gets NASA renewal as it expands its reach
NASA officials are re-upping investment in the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, a University of Michigan-led research project designed to improve hurricane forecasting that is demonstrating a knack for helping solve problems on land. Launched in late 2016, the eight-microsatellite system analyzes the interaction of water and air near the heart of storm systems to bolster predictions on the severity of storms.

Economics - Environment - 09.11.2020
How to Accelerate Solar Adoption for the Underserved
Berkeley Lab study finds certain policies and business models can lead to more equitable distribution of solar installations As rooftop solar prices have fallen, many households at all income levels can now save money by going solar. Nonetheless, lowand moderate-income households remain less likely to adopt solar than high-income households.

Environment - 09.11.2020
Scientists unravel how and why Amazon trees die
The capacity of the Amazon forest to store carbon in a changing climate will ultimately be determined by how fast trees die - and what kills them. Now, a huge new study has unravelled what factors control tree mortality rates in Amazon forests and helps to explain why tree mortality is increasing across the Amazon basin.

Environment - 09.11.2020
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
Cyanobacteria, which are often called blue algae, can actually adopt colours ranging from green to orange via pink, depending on the dominant photosynthetic pigment in the cells of particular species. Not all cyanobacteria, however, capture light in the same way: Prochlorococcus , for example, the most abundant cyanobacterium in the ocean, preferentially absorbs violet and blue wavelengths, while its cousin Synechococcus captures blue, green or both, depending on its pigment type.

Environment - Life Sciences - 06.11.2020
More plant diversity, less pesticides
More plant diversity, less pesticides
Species-rich plant communities help to naturally reduce herbivore impacts Life Increasing plant diversity enhances the natural control of insect herbivory in grasslands. Species-rich plant communities support natural predators and simultaneously provide less valuable food for herbivores. This was found by a team of researchers led by the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig (iDiv), who conducted two analogous experiments in Germany and the USA.

Life Sciences - Environment - 06.11.2020
Discovery triples greater glider species in Australia
Discovery triples greater glider species in Australia
Australian scientists have discovered one of Australia's best-loved animals is actually three different species. A team of researchers from James Cook University (JCU), The Australian National University (ANU), the University of Canberra and CSIRO analysed the genetic make-up of the greater glider - a possum-sized marsupial that can glide up to 100 metres.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 06.11.2020
Climate change and food demand could shrink species’ habitats by almost a quarter by 2100
Mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide have lost on average 18% of their natural habitat range as a result of changes in land use and climate change, a new study has found. In a worst-case scenario this loss could increase to 23% over the next 80 years. We found that the higher the carbon emissions, the worse it gets for most species in terms of habitat loss.

Environment - Life Sciences - 05.11.2020
New global archive logs changes in behavior of Arctic animals
New global archive logs changes in behavior of Arctic animals
The Arctic's dramatic changes - warmer winters, earlier springs, shrinking ice and more human development - are impacting native animals. Researchers have long been observing the movements and behavior of animals in this region, but it's been difficult to discover and access these data for meaningful collaborations.

Environment - Paleontology - 05.11.2020
Key to predicting future climate: Look back millions of years
An international team of climate scientists, including two from the University of Michigan, suggests that researchers using numerical models to predict future climate change should include simulations of past climates when evaluating model performance. "We urge the climate model developer community to pay attention to the past and actively involve it in predicting the future,” said Jessica Tierney, the paper's lead author and an associate professor in the University of Arizona's Department of Geosciences.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 05.11.2020
Diversity Increases Yields and Protects the Environment
Diversity Increases Yields and Protects the Environment
Harnessing the forces of nature and agricultural practice in all its variety - that is diversification. Diversification brings benefits - positive impacts on yields and environmental protection. This is the conclusion of an international study in which Agroscope researchers took part, and which was recently published Advances.