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Life Sciences - 11.11.2021
How does a wing grow? A journey on the path of proteins
How does a wing grow? A journey on the path of proteins
To form an organ, cells must communicate properly and develop their number, shape and size down to the smallest detail. A research team at the University of Basel investigates wing growth in the fruit fly and now has refuted a long-standing dogma. Contrary to what was previously assumed, the team showed that the dispersal of a signalling molecule called Dpp is not responsible for the entire wing shape and size.

Environment - Life Sciences - 11.11.2021
Complex behaviour of sea urchins regarding the predators' threat
Complex behaviour of sea urchins regarding the predators’ threat
Sea urchins, albeit having a limited and ancestral sensory system, can show a complex behaviour when escaping a predator. These marine invertebrates tend to move slowly and with unpredictable movements, but when they smell a predator, they escape following a ballistic motion -straightforward, quick and directional- to escape the threat.

Life Sciences - Agronomy / Food Science - 11.11.2021
AI helps design the perfect chickpea
AI helps design the perfect chickpea
A massive international research effort has led to development of a genetic model for the 'ultimate' chickpea, with the potential to lift crop yields by up to 12 per cent. The research consortium genetically mapped thousands of chickpea varieties, and the UQ team then used this information to identify the most valuable gene combinations using artificial intelligence (AI).

Health - Life Sciences - 11.11.2021
Fighting gut infections helps prevent Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis
Genes present in specific intestinal cells protect against the development of inflammatory bowel diseases, researchers at UdeM and the MHI show. A research team at the Montreal Heart Institute and Université de Montréal has shown that genes present in specific intestinal cells protect against the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.11.2021
Pacific rockfish and the trade-offs of a longer life
The yelloweye rockfish, Sebastes ruberrimus, dwells in deep waters along the California coast and lives upward of 140 years. (Photo courtesy of the Southwest Fisheries Science Center ROV dive team) Rockfish is on the menu around the Pacific Rim, for the most part with little regard for the fish's origin or which of the 137 species is on the plate - it's typically identified simply as rockfish or, incorrectly, as rock cod or red snapper.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.11.2021
Whole genomic sequencing improves rare disease diagnosis
Whole genome sequencing led to new rare disease diagnoses for NHS patients in some cases ending decades-long diagnostic odysseys Study represents significant step towards the goal of precision medicine - a transition that will have huge impact across the NHS and globally A world-first scientific study, published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, has shown that whole genome sequencing (WGS) can uncover new diagnoses for people across the broadest range of rare diseases investigated to date and could deliver enormous benefits across the NHS.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.11.2021
New Research Helps Explain the Genetic Basis of Why We Look the Way We Do
Revisiting three-decade-old McGinnis experiment leads to clues on the fundamental development of anatomical appearance Which genes control the defining features that make us look as we do? And how do they make it happen? In 1990, University of California San Diego biologist William McGinnis conducted a seminal experiment that helped scientists unravel how high-level control genes called Hox genes shape our appearance features.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 10.11.2021
When algorithms get creative
Uncovering the mechanisms of learning via synaptic plasticity is a critical step towards understanding how our brains function and building truly intelligent, adaptive machines. Researchers from the University of Bern propose a new approach in which algorithms mimic biological evolution and learn efficiently through creative evolution.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.11.2021
Study proposes new biomarkers to determine the neuronal damage in Alzheimer's
Study proposes new biomarkers to determine the neuronal damage in Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer's disease is the main neurodegenerative disease in old people for which there is no treatment or efficient prevention yet. Current diagnostic methods do not detect one of the earliest and most relevant alterations of the disease: the degree of synaptic dysfunction that shows the neuronal damage.

Life Sciences - Environment - 10.11.2021
Size Matters for Bee ’Superorganism’ Colonies
Like neurological systems and human social groups, new research on bees offers clues to how biological collectives make choices under dynamic conditions Scientists have carefully studied the intricacies of how individual organisms live and act together in groups known as biological collectives. In "superorganisms" such as bee colonies, the interactions of the individual members add up to benefit the entire colony.

Life Sciences - Sport - 10.11.2021
Mitigating for angle, ’torque’ of impact key to safer hockey helmets: study
Like most sports technology, hockey helmets have evolved exponentially over the past 50 years. Gone are the days of the "egg shell" helmets worn by NHL superstars like Wayne Gretzky and Michel Goulet in the 1970s and 1980s. As the primary piece of equipment used to protect hockey players (professional or amateur) from concussions and other brain injuries, researchers at Western University say it is vitally important to continue improving the quality of hockey helmets.

Life Sciences - Environment - 10.11.2021
The global ocean out of balance
The global ocean out of balance
Surprising as it sounds, all life forms in the ocean, from small krill to large tuna, seem to obey a simple mathematical law that links an organism's abundance to its body size. For example, although small krill are individually only one billionth of the weight of a large tuna, they also tend to be a billion times more numerous throughout the oceans.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.11.2021
Listening to favourite music improves brain function in Alzheimer's patients: University of Toronto research
Listening to favourite music improves brain function in Alzheimer’s patients: University of Toronto research
Repeated listening to personally meaningful music induces beneficial brain plasticity in patients with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease, a new study by researchers at the University of Toronto and Unity Health Toronto suggests. Changes in the brain's neural pathways correlated with increased memory performance on neuropsychological tests, supporting the clinical potential of personalized, music-based interventions for people with dementia.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.11.2021
Immune system early responder can combat COVID-19
A simple RNA molecule jumpstarts the immune system's "first responders" to viral infection and can even eradicate the SARS-CoV-2 virus in mice with chronic cases of COVID-19, a new Yale School of Medicine study finds. The molecule, known as SLR14, is a simple, easy to manufacture, loop of RNA that can trigger the production of interferons, a group of proteins produced by immune cells that are key to the body's innate, or initial, response to infection.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.11.2021
Brain connections have their own tempo
Brain connections have their own tempo
Scientists from the University of Geneva show that during development, the different populations of neurons needed for connections between brain areas share similar genetic programs, but which unfold at different speeds. The cerebral cortex, located at the surface of the brain, handles the cognitive, language, and complex functions that allow us to represent the world or project ourselves into the future.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.11.2021
From 'corpora amylacea' to wasteosomes: new perspectives on the removal of damaging substances in tissue
From ’corpora amylacea’ to wasteosomes: new perspectives on the removal of damaging substances in tissue
Corpora amylacea (CA) are complex aggregates described in different organs and tissues associated with ageing and degenerative processes. Described for the first time in 1779 by Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the prostate and in 1837 by Jan Evangelista Purkinje in the brain, these were named corpora amylacea (in Latin, starch bodies) by Rudolf Vichow in 1854 for their similiarities with this polysaccharide.

Life Sciences - Physics - 09.11.2021
'Tug of war' between cells - When crucial connections are missing
’Tug of war’ between cells - When crucial connections are missing
Research team led by University of Göttingen investigates the importance of "tight junctions" for cell movement The ability of cells to move together in harmony is crucial for numerous biological processes in our body, for example wound healing, or the healthy development of an organism. This movement is made possible by the connections between individual cells.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.11.2021
A Target for Potential Cancer Drugs May, In Fact, Worsen Disease
Inhibiting the enzyme Shp2 in tumor cells theoretically stops disease progression, but new data suggests it may actually boost tumor growth In recent years, much scientific effort and funding has focused on developing drugs that target an enzyme with the unwieldy name of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 or more briefly, Shp2.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.11.2021
How to turn specific genes on and off
How to turn specific genes on and off
Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer are just some of the disorders associated with specific genes not "turning on" and "turning off" as they should. By using new CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, in a recent paper , McGill researchers have described a new technique that scientists across the world can potentially use to explore novel ways of treating diseases associated with dysregulation in DNA methylation.

Life Sciences - Health - 05.11.2021
New clues for the shared origins of irritable bowel syndrome and mental health disorders | University of Cambridge
New clues for the shared origins of irritable bowel syndrome and mental health disorders | University of Cambridge
Large-scale genetic study reveals new clues for the shared origins of irritable bowel syndrome and mental health disorders An international study of more than 50,000 people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has revealed that IBS symptoms may be caused by the same biological processes as conditions such as anxiety.
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