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Life Sciences - Health - 28.09.2022
Birth of a sibling triggers long-lasting stress in young bonobos
Birth of a sibling triggers long-lasting stress in young bonobos
First-of-its-kind study identifies physiological changes in the transition to siblinghood In any family, the birth of a child is a transformative event, often greeted with positive feelings from parents-and mixed feelings from siblings. The arrival of a new brother or sister, and the loss of parental attention that comes with it, is stressful for any first-born child.

Music - Health - 28.09.2022
Wind music causes less transmission than singing
Playing wind instruments spreads more viruses than breathing, but less than speaking or singing A relatively large number of viruses can emerge from the clarinet. It releases considerably more aerosols, which can contain pathogens such as Sars-CoV-2, compared to other instruments such as the flute. However, the risk of transmission from an infected person playing a wind instrument is generally much lower than for people who sing or speak, provided that one spends the same amount of time in their vicinity.

Chemistry - Physics - 28.09.2022
How fish survive extreme pressures of ocean life
Scientists have discovered how a chemical in the cells of marine organisms enables them to survive the high pressures found in the deep oceans. The deeper that sea creatures live, the more inhospitable and extreme the environment they must cope with. In one of the deepest points in the Pacific - the Mariana Trench, 11 kilometers below the sea surface - the pressure is 1.1 kbar or eight tons per square inch.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.09.2022
Breaks in ’junk’ DNA give scientists new insight into neurological disorders
Junk- DNA could unlock new treatments for neurological disorders as scientists discover how its breaks and repairs affect our protection against neurological disease.

Health - Life Sciences - 28.09.2022
Breaking through the mucus barrier
Breaking through the mucus barrier
A capsule that tunnels through mucus in the GI tract could be used to orally administer large protein drugs such as insulin. One reason that it's so difficult to deliver large protein drugs orally is that these drugs can't pass through the mucus barrier that lines the digestive tract. This means that insulin and most other "biologic drugs" - drugs consisting of proteins or nucleic acids - have to be injected or administered in a hospital.

Environment - 28.09.2022
UW-developed wave sensors deployed to improve hurricane forecasts
Jacob Davis, a UW doctoral candidate in civil and environmental engineering, (right) releases a wave-monitoring sensor from a U.S. Navy aircraft on Sept. 26 off the coast of Florida. Data from this instrument developed at the UW Applied Physics Laboratory will be combined with other observations to try and improve hurricane forecasts around the world.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 27.09.2022
Seawater could have provided phosphorous required for emerging life
Seawater could have provided phosphorous required for emerging life
The problem of how phosphorus became a universal ingredient for life on Earth may have been solved by researchers from the University of Cambridge and the University of Cape Town, who have recreated primordial seawater containing the element in the lab.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.09.2022
’Love hormone’ may support memory in people with Alzheimer’s
Oxytocin may be able to support memory in people with Alzheimer's disease. This is the conclusion of a study led by Maastricht University in which oxytocin was administered to mice with Alzheimer's-related problems. The research is based on epigenetics, the external effects that turn parts of our DNA on or off during our lifetime.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.09.2022
The effects of stress and coping strategies regarding COVID-19 also depend on the pre-pandemic state of brain networks
The effects of stress and coping strategies regarding COVID-19 also depend on the pre-pandemic state of brain networks
The COVID-19 pandemic generated a unique scenario to analyse the psychological impact of global and extreme situations on the population. Now, a study reveals the importance of the configuration of individual brain networks —before the COVID-19 outbreak— in people's ability of managing the impact of stress and coping strategies regarding the pandemic.

Linguistics / Literature - 27.09.2022
The first Camilo José Cela manuscript, found
The first Camilo José Cela manuscript, found
Cultura The manuscript is the collection of poems Pisando la dudosa luz del día , which Camilo José Cela wrote from November 1 to 11, 1936, driven by the death of his girlfriend in tragic circumstances, victim of the bombings of the first major siege of Franco's troops in Madrid, to which he would later enlist.

Life Sciences - 27.09.2022
Why domestic cats may have small brains
Domestic cats have smaller brains than their wild ancestors. Smaller brains need less energy. Cats might thus be able to spend more energy on other energetically costly organs. In the scientific journal Integrative Biology, a group of international researchers suggest that domestic cats have used this energy to enlarge their gut length to adapt their digestive system to the human environment.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 27.09.2022
The distance to the Moon and the length of the day 2.46 billion years ago
At a slow pace, the Moon is moving away from the Earth and the Earth is rotating more slowly around its axis. To say something about these changes in the distant past, geologists use information stored in rocks and fossils. But the further back in time they look, the more difficult it becomes to retrieve this information.

Health - 27.09.2022
New findings on the effects of Covid-19 on the colon
Although SARS-CoV-2 infections mainly attack the lungs, in many cases they can also damage other organs, such as the colon: around 60% of patients experienced digestive tract impacts. Researchers at MedUni Vienna have analysed the manifestations of Covid-19 in the lungs and colon and pinpointed the differences at a molecular level.

Agronomy / Food Science - Chemistry - 27.09.2022
Germany's oldest beer scientifically considered
Germany’s oldest beer scientifically considered
Study reveals molecular profile of 19th century beer sample After almost 140 years, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) opened a lager beer that had been kept at room temperature throughout to analyze it. The beer, dating back to 1885, has now been characterized sensorially and analytically.

Materials Science - 27.09.2022
'Cushions' against rail noise and vibrations
’Cushions’ against rail noise and vibrations
To reduce rail noise for residents, noise barriers or quieter wheel systems and brakes are not the only options. An inconspicuous component under the railway tracks is a beacon of hope for quieter rail traffic for a team of researchers with Empa involvement - and first tests on passing trains show a positive effect.

Environment - Health - 27.09.2022
Climate change may have major impact on Bonaire
Bonaire will be hit hard by climate change if we fail to curb global warming, a study by VU Amsterdam's Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) has revealed. If global warming exceeds 1.4 degrees Celsius, part of the island could end up underwater by the end of the century due to rising sea levels.

Social Sciences - 27.09.2022
New insights on teen vaping behaviour in Australia
A new study tracking Australian teenager beliefs and behaviours using vapes (e-cigarettes) has found many are readily accessing and using illegal vaping products, writes A/Prof Becky Freeman, Dr Christina Watts and Sam Egger. Teen vaping has been in the news, with reports of  rapidly increasing use  and  illegal sales  of e-cigarettes.

Health - 27.09.2022
New study adds to evidence that bans of menthol cigarettes help smokers to quit
Findings support proposed menthol bans in the U.S. and other countries A new study concludes that the 2020 European ban on menthol cigarettes made it more likely that menthol smokers would quit smoking, supporting previous Canadian research on the positive public health impact of banning menthol cigarettes.

Health - 27.09.2022
New herbicide solution inspired by cholesterol medicine
Curtin researchers have discovered a promising new herbicide target site in plants with potential to provide new solutions for growers dealing with the increasing problem of herbicide resistance. Published recently in Nature Communications and led by researchers from Curtin's Centre for Crop and Disease Management (CCDM) in collaboration with The University of Western Australia, the research has used statins - a class of chemicals commonly used in humans to reduce cholesterol - to reveal an enzyme in plants that could be a target site for the development of a new group of herbicides.

Health - Life Sciences - 27.09.2022
Found the origin of fascioliasis, a priority disease according to the WHO, in Southeast Africa and the Middle East
Found the origin of fascioliasis, a priority disease according to the WHO, in Southeast Africa and the Middle East
The team from the Sanitary Parasitology Unit of the University of Valencia (UV), an official collaborating centre of the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva and a World Reference Centre of the FAO/United Nations, has managed to elucidate the origin of fascioliasis, a parasitic disease caused by two species of helminths from the trematode group, the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica .