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Physics - Computer Science - 08.12.2023
Training algorithm breaks barriers to deep physical neural networks
Training algorithm breaks barriers to deep physical neural networks
Researchers have developed an algorithm to train an analog neural network just as accurately as a digital one, enabling the development of more efficient alternatives to power-hungry deep learning hardware. With their ability to process vast amounts of data through algorithmic 'learning' rather than traditional programming, it often seems like the potential of deep neural networks like Chat-GPT is limitless.

Mathematics - Physics - 07.12.2023
CEA-Leti Paper in Nature Communications Reports First Complete Memristor-Based Bayesian Neural Network Implementation For Real-World Task
Breakthrough Classifies Types of Arrhythmia Recordings With Precise Aleatoric and Epistemic Uncertainty - A team comprising CEA-Leti, CEA-List and two CNRS laboratories has published a new paper in Nature Communications presenting the first complete memristor-based Bayesian neural network implementation for a real-world task-classifying types of arrhythmia recordings with precise aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty.

Physics - Life Sciences - 07.12.2023
Riding sound waves in the brain
Researchers have shown for the first time that microvehicles can be steered through blood vessels in the brains of mice using ultrasound. They hope that this will eventually lead to treatments capable of delivering drugs with pinpoint precision. Brain tumours, brain haemorrhages and neurological and psychological conditions are often hard to treat with medication.

Chemistry - Physics - 07.12.2023
Way to determine how the surfaces of materials behave
Way to determine how the surfaces of materials behave
Using machine learning, the computational method can provide details of how materials work as catalysts, semiconductors, or battery components. Designing new compounds or alloys whose surfaces can be used as catalysts in chemical reactions can be a complex process relying heavily on the intuition of experienced chemists.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 07.12.2023
Extreme conditions in stars produce the universe’s heaviest elements
Study: Element abundance patterns in stars indicate fission of nuclei heavier than uranium In studying how the rich diversity of elements in the universe came to exist, University of Michigan research has put a number on how heavy an atom nature can produce-and it happens under extreme conditions in specific types of stars and supernovae.

Physics - Materials Science - 06.12.2023
In Search of the Perfect Mirror at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths
In Search of the Perfect Mirror at Mid-Infrared Wavelengths
Advanced infrared mirrors enhance climate and biofuel research via precision trace gas sensing. An international team of researchers from the United States, Austria, and Switzerland has demonstrated the first true supermirrors in the mid-infrared spectral region. These mirrors are key for many applications, such as optical spectroscopy for environmental sensing, as well as laser cutting and welding for manufacturing.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 06.12.2023
Stellar winds regulate growth of galaxies
Stellar winds regulate growth of galaxies
Galactic winds enable the exchange of matter between galaxies and their surroundings. In this way, they limit the growth of galaxies, that is, their star formation rate. Although this had already been observed in the local universe, an international research team led by a CNRS scientist 1   has just revealed-using MUSE, 2  an instrument integrated into the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Very Large Telescope-the existence of the phenomenon in galaxies which are more than 7 billion years old and actively forming stars, the category to which most galaxies belong.

Physics - Chemistry - 05.12.2023
Atomically Precise Assembly of 2D Materials Paves Way for Next-Generation Electronics
Scientists at the University of Manchester Unveil Inorganic Stamp Technology for Creating Atomically Clean Interfaces Key Highlights Atomically clean interfaces: The new stamp design has enabled the creation of atomically clean interfaces between stacked 2D materials over extended areas, a significant improvement over existing techniques.

Physics - Research Management - 05.12.2023
Diamonds and rust help unveil 'impossible' quasi-particles
Diamonds and rust help unveil ’impossible’ quasi-particles
Researchers have discovered magnetic monopoles - isolated magnetic charges - in a material closely related to rust, a result that could be used to power greener and faster computing technologies. If monopoles did exist, and we were able to isolate them, it would be like finding a missing puzzle piece that was assumed to be lost Mete Atatüre Researchers led by the University of Cambridge used a technique known as diamond quantum sensing to observe swirling textures and faint magnetic signals on the surface of hematite, a type of iron oxide.

Physics - Materials Science - 05.12.2023
New twist on graphene through the development of two-dimensional magnetic materials with 'on demand' properties
New twist on graphene through the development of two-dimensional magnetic materials with ’on demand’ properties
A team from the Institute of Molecular Science (ICMol) of the University of Valencia has taken a step forward in the field of twistronics, an area that brings together physics, chemistry and nanotechnology towards the search and control of new and extraordinary properties in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

Physics - Astronomy / Space - 05.12.2023
Unlocking Neu­tron Star Rota­tion Anoma­lies
Unlocking Neu­tron Star Rota­tion Anoma­lies
A collaboration between quantum physicists and astrophysicists, led by Francesca Ferlaino and Massimo Mannarelli, has achieved a significant breakthrough in understanding neutron star glitches. They were able to numerically simulate this enigmatic cosmic phenomenon with ultracold dipolar atoms. This research establishes a strong link between quantum mechanics and astrophysics and paves the way for quantum simulation of stellar objects from Earth.

Chemistry - Physics - 05.12.2023
Chemists create organic molecules in a rainbow of colors
Chemists create organic molecules in a rainbow of colors
The molecules, known as acenes, could be useful as organic light-emitting diodes or solar cells, among other possible applications. Chains of fused carbon-containing rings have unique optoelectronic properties that make them useful as semiconductors. These chains, known as acenes, can also be tuned to emit different colors of light, which makes them good candidates for use in organic light-emitting diodes.

Physics - Astronomy / Space - 04.12.2023
New theory seeks to unite Einstein's gravity with quantum mechanics
New theory seeks to unite Einstein’s gravity with quantum mechanics
A radical theory that consistently unifies gravity and quantum mechanics while preserving Einstein's classical concept of spacetime is announced today in two papers published simultaneously by UCL physicists. Modern physics is founded upon two pillars: quantum theory on the one hand, which governs the smallest particles in the universe, and Einstein's theory of general relativity on the other, which explains gravity through the bending of spacetime.

Physics - Astronomy / Space - 04.12.2023
New theory unites Einstein's gravity with quantum mechanics
New theory unites Einstein’s gravity with quantum mechanics
A radical theory that consistently unifies gravity and quantum mechanics while preserving Einstein's classical concept of spacetime is announced today in two papers published simultaneously by UCL physicists. Modern physics is founded upon two pillars: quantum theory on the one hand, which governs the smallest particles in the universe, and Einstein's theory of general relativity on the other, which explains gravity through the bending of spacetime.

Life Sciences - Physics - 04.12.2023
New method for localizing modifications in mRNA
Andrea Rentmeister's team detects methylated sites with click chemistry The genetic information of an organism is stored in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in every cell. In order to be able to produce proteins with this blueprint, the DNA is first transcribed into so-called mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid).

Physics - Chemistry - 04.12.2023
Quantum physics: Superconducting Nanowires Detect Single Protein Ions
Quantum physics: Superconducting Nanowires Detect Single Protein Ions
Detection efficiency 1,000 times higher than conventional ion detectors due to high sensitivity An international research team led by quantum physicist Markus Arndt (University of Vienna) has achieved a breakthrough in the detection of protein ions: Due to their high energy sensitivity, superconducting nanowire detectors achieve almost 100% quantum efficiency and exceed the detection efficiency of conventional ion detectors at low energies by a factor of up to a 1,000.

Physics - Chemistry - 04.12.2023
Watching electrons at work
Watching electrons at work
Researchers from ETH Zurich, Empa and Stanford have taken snapshots of the crystal structure of perovskite nanocrystals as it was deformed by excited electrons. To their surprise, the deformation straightened out the skewed crystal structure rather than making it more disordered. Many a scientific and technical problem could be solved easily if it were possible to look inside a material and watch its atoms and electrons wiggle about in real time.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 01.12.2023
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
A new possible explanation for the Hubble tension
Study by the Universities of Bonn and St. Andrews proposes a solution to one of the great mysteries of cosmology The universe is expanding. How fast it does so is described by the so-called Hubble-Lemaitre constant. But there is a dispute about how big this constant actually is: Different measurement methods provide contradictory values.

Physics - Innovation - 01.12.2023
Photonic chip that ’fits together like Lego’ opens door to local industry
Integrating photons into electronic chips expands bandwidth and filter control New semiconductor architecture integrates traditional electronics with photonic, or light, components. Designed by Dr Alvaro Casas Bedoya in the School of Physics, the chip could have application in advanced radar, satellites, wireless networks and 6G telecommunications.

Physics - Innovation - 30.11.2023
With a quantum ’squeeze,’ clocks could keep even more precise time, MIT researchers propose
Massachusetts Institute of Technology More stable clocks could measure quantum phenomena, including the presence of dark matter. The practice of keeping time hinges on stable oscillations. In a grandfather clock, the length of a second is marked by a single swing of the pendulum. In a digital watch, the vibrations of a quartz crystal mark much smaller fractions of time.