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Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
25.09.2017
IceCube helps demystify strange radio bursts from deep space
IceCube is a neutrino detector composed of 5,160 optical modules embedded in a gigaton of crystal-clear ice a mile beneath the geographic South Pole. Photo courtesy of National Science Foundation For a decade, astronomers have puzzled over ephemeral but incredibly powerful radio bursts from space. The phenomena, known as fast radio bursts or FRBs, were first detected in 2007 by astronomers scouring archival data from Australia's Parkes Telescope, a 64-meter diameter dish best known for its role receiving live televison images from the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969.
Physics/Materials Science - Astronomy
22.09.2017
Highest-energy cosmic rays have extragalactic origin
Highest-energy cosmic rays have extragalactic origin
A 50-year-old debate has at last been settled: the highest-energy cosmic rays do not originate in our own Galaxy but in galaxies located tens or even hundreds of millions of light years away.
Astronomy
21.09.2017
Vitamin super-cocktail to combat 60 days of lying in bed
Vitamin super-cocktail to combat 60 days of lying in bed
This week will see the second ESA bedrest study investigating a mix of antioxidants and vitamins that could help astronauts to combat the side effects of living in space. Ten volunteers will lie in beds with the head end tilted down 6º for 60 days, keeping at least one shoulder on their bed at all times.
Astronomy - Chemistry
21.09.2017
Pew! Pew! Curiosity's ChemCam zaps a half million Martian rocks
Pew! Pew! Curiosity’s ChemCam zaps a half million Martian rocks
"The data that has been delivered by ChemCam from Gale Crater has really changed our understanding of Mars," said Roger Wiens, principal investigator of the ChemCam project at Los Alamos. "It's told us things about the planet's geologic history that we never imagined possible." LOS ALAMOS, N.M., September 21, 2017-Late Tuesday, the ChemCam instrument that sits atop NASA's Mars Curiosity rover fired its 500,000 th shot at a Martian rock.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
21.09.2017
Fast Radio Bursts May Be Firing Off Every Second
Fast Radio Bursts May Be Firing Off Every Second
When fast radio bursts, or FRBs, were first detected in 2001, astronomers had never seen anything like them before. Since then, astronomers have found a couple of dozen FRBs, but they still don't know what causes these rapid and powerful bursts of radio emission. For the first time, two astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) have estimated how many FRBs should occur over the entire observable universe.
Astronomy
19.09.2017
Size matters in the detection of exoplanet atmospheres
Size matters in the detection of exoplanet atmospheres
A group-analysis of 30 exoplanets orbiting distant stars suggests that size, not mass, is a key factor in whether a planet's atmosphere can be detected according to a UCL-led team of European researchers. The largest population-study of exoplanets to date successfully detected atmospheres around 16 'hot Jupiters', and found that water vapour was present in every case.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
14.09.2017
Bidding farewell to Cassini mission that explored Saturn
Bidding farewell to Cassini mission that explored Saturn
"It's an extraordinarily difficult mission, but one with extraordinary rewards: giving us a glimpse into how our solar system formed and how it operates today. Watching a mission come to an end is always bittersweet, but we're proud to have been a part of something so successful that will continue to inform our understanding of our universe." Los Alamos National Laboratory played part in two major discoveries and powered the spacecraft during its 20-year flight Los Alamos, N.M., Sept.
Astronomy - Chemistry
13.09.2017
Inferno world with titanium skies
Inferno world with titanium skies
An international team of astronomers has detected titanium oxide in the atmosphere of an exoplanet for the first time. The results provide unique information about the chemical composition and the temperature and pressure structure of the atmosphere of this unusual and very hot world. The clear detection of the molecule is a major observational advancement - it is an exciting time in exoplanetary science.
Astronomy - Administration/Government
12.09.2017
Astronomers spun up by galaxy-shape finding
Scientists have measured how a galaxy's spin affects its shape - and found faster-spinning galaxies are flatter and rounder. The discovery was made sampling 845 galaxies and could help provide insights into a galaxy's past. For the first time astronomers have measured how a galaxy's spin affects its shape.
Astronomy - Chemistry
04.09.2017
Does the organic material of comets predate our Solar System ?
Does the organic material of comets predate our Solar System ?
The Rosetta space probe discovered a large amount of organic material in the nucleus of comet “Chury.” In an article published by MNRAS on August 31, 2017, two French researchers advance the theory that this matter has its origin in interstellar space and predates the birth of the Solar System. The ESA's Rosetta mission, which ended in September 2016, found that organic matter made up 40% (by mass) of the nucleus of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a.k.a.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
01.09.2017
Earth-sized planets forty light years away could be habitable
There could be water on multiple Earth-sized planets orbiting the recently discovered TRAPPIST-1 dwarf star - making them potentially habitable - according to an international collaboration of researchers, including the University of Warwick. Using the NASA/ESA Hubble telescope to estimate whether there might be water on the surface of the seven planets around TRAPPIST-1, the researchers found that although the innermost planets must have lost most - if not all - of their water, the outer planets of the system might still harbour substantial amounts.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
01.09.2017
UCLA physicists propose new theories of black holes from the very early universe
UCLA physicists propose new theories of black holes from the very early universe
'Primordial black holes,' believed to have formed shortly after the Big Bang, might explain how gold, platinum and uranium are created Katherine Kornei UCLA physicists have proposed new theories for how the universe's first black holes might have formed and the role they might play in the production of heavy elements such as gold, platinum and uranium.
Astronomy - Mathematics
31.08.2017
AI analyzes gravitational lenses 10 million times faster
SLAC and Stanford researchers demonstrate that brain-mimicking 'neural networks' can revolutionize the way astrophysicists analyze their most complex data, including extreme distortions in spacetime that are crucial for our understanding of the universe. Menlo Park, Calif.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
31.08.2017
Ultraviolet Light May Be Ultra Important In Search For Life
Ultraviolet Light May Be Ultra Important In Search For Life
In everyday life, ultraviolet, or UV, light earns a bad reputation for being responsible for sunburns and other harmful effects on humans. However, research suggests that UV light may have played a critical role in the emergence of life on Earth and could be a key for where to look for life elsewhere in the Universe.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
31.08.2017
Neighboring exoplanets may hold water, study finds
Neighboring exoplanets may hold water, study finds
Seven Earth-sized exoplanets circle the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1, just 40 light-years from our own blue planet. Now an international team of scientists at the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland, MIT, and elsewhere, report that the outer planets in this system may still hold significant stores of water.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
30.08.2017
Magnetic fields in distant galaxy are new piece of cosmic puzzle
Astronomers have measured magnetic fields in a galaxy 4.6 billion light-years away - a big clue to understanding how magnetic fields formed and evolved over cosmic time. Hubble Space Telescope image of the gravitational lensing system in the new research. The background quasar is lensed by the foreground galaxy into images A and B. Image courtesy of Sui Ann Mao In an article published Aug.
Astronomy - Chemistry
30.08.2017
Star-formation 'fuel tanks' found around distant galaxies offer insights into history of universe
Star-formation ’fuel tanks’ found around distant galaxies offer insights into history of universe
ANN ARBOR-In the early universe, brilliant starburst galaxies converted vast stores of hydrogen gas into new stars at a furious pace. The energy from this vigorous star formation took its toll on many young galaxies, blasting away much of their hydrogen gas, tamping down future star formation. For reasons that remained unclear, other young galaxies were somehow able to retain their youthful star-forming power long after similar galaxies settled into middle age.
Astronomy
29.08.2017
Volunteers find ’spiders’ on Mars - but not where they expected
A high resolution image from the HiRISE camera onboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of one of the new Martian araneiform (or "spider") locales outside of the South Polar Layered Deposits discovered by the Planet Four: Terrains volunteers. Image credit:  NASA/JPL/University of Arizona Armchair astronomers have helped Oxford University scientists discover landforms known as 'spiders' on parts of Mars where they were previously thought not to exist.
Astronomy
23.08.2017
Scientists detect first X-rays from mystery supernovas
Scientists have detected the first X-rays from what appears to be a type Ia supernova, located inside the spiral-shaped galaxy ESO 336-G009, about 260 million light-years from Earth. Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features.
Astronomy - Physics/Materials Science
22.08.2017
The moving Martian bow shock
The moving Martian bow shock
A Lancaster physicist has led an international study, based on data from the European Space Agency Mars Express orbiter , which throws new light on the interaction between the planet Mars and supersonic particles in the solar wind. As the energetic particles of the solar wind speed across interplanetary space, their motion is modified by objects in their path.
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