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Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.06.2020
No Space for Climate Change
No Space for Climate Change
How do rising temperatures and more hot days affect cities, especially the heat stress on public squares? And what needs to be done in response to climate change? A team of Heidelberg University geographers led by Dr Kathrin Foshag investigated these questions using locations in the Heidelberg urban area.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 24.06.2020
Reveals how water in the deep Earth triggers earthquakes and tsunamis
Reveals how water in the deep Earth triggers earthquakes and tsunamis
Water (H2O) and other volatiles (e.g. CO2 and sulphur) that are cycled through the deep Earth have played a key role in the evolution of our planet, including in the formation of continents, the onset of life, the concentration of mineral resources, and the distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes.

Earth Sciences - Computer Science - 18.06.2020
Natural Fluid Injections Triggered Cahuilla Earthquake Swarm
At a Glance Leadership President Provost Board of Trustees Legacy History & Milestones Historic Awards & Honors Caltech Archives Interactive History Map News Publications This is Caltech Caltech Magazine Periodic Table of Caltech Innovation and Impact Exploration and Achievement Directions Campus Maps Parking Tours Administrative Offices & Departments Academic Divisions Biology and Biological Engineering Chemistry and Chemical Enginee

Palaeontology - Earth Sciences - 17.06.2020
Hard news: Early dinosaur eggs were soft, scientists say
Hard news: Early dinosaur eggs were soft, scientists say
The first dinosaur eggs had a soft shell, say paleontologists from Yale and the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). The finding upends decades of conventional wisdom by the scientific community. For many years there was scant fossil evidence of dinosaur eggs, and all known examples were characterized by thick, calcified shells - leading paleontologists to speculate that all dinosaur eggs were hard-shelled, like those of modern crocodiles and birds.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 17.06.2020
Why the Mediterranean is a climate change hotspot
Why the Mediterranean is a climate change hotspot
MIT analysis uncovers the basis of the severe rainfall declines predicted by many models. Although global climate models vary in many ways, they agree on this: The Mediterranean region will be significantly drier in coming decades, potentially seeing 40 percent less precipitation during the winter rainy season.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 12.06.2020
Tiny sand grains trigger massive glacial surges
Tiny sand grains trigger massive glacial surges
New model answers longstanding question of how these sudden flows happen; may expand understanding of Antarctic ice sheets. About 10 percent of the Earth's land mass is covered in glaciers, most of which slip slowly across the land over years, carving fjords and trailing rivers in their wake. But about 1 percent of glaciers can suddenly surge, spilling over the land at 10 to 100 times their normal speed.  When this happens, a glacial surge can set off avalanches, flood rivers and lakes, and overwhelm downstream settlements.

Earth Sciences - Mathematics - 12.06.2020
Could we run out of sand? Scientists adjust how grains are measured
Could we run out of sand? Scientists adjust how grains are measured
Not all sand is the same, but scientists have been using one model to measure how all sand flows. Geoscientists have now developed new mathematical equations that will help engineers manage coastline susceptible to the effects of climate change. Humans see sand as an infinite resource. We are astounded to discover there are more stars in the universe than grains of sand on our beaches.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 11.06.2020
Metals history of the Laurentian Great Lakes
The Laurentian Great Lakes - Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario - are the most studied system in lake geochemistry and have well-preserved chronological profiles.  Metals play numerous critical roles in natural and human-influenced characteristics of lake ecosystems, so patterns in the historical records of metals from sedimentary cores provide important information about environmental baselines and human impact.

Earth Sciences - 11.06.2020
Forces in the Earth's crust determine the height of mountain ranges
Forces in the Earth’s crust determine the height of mountain ranges
Geoscientists show that it is not erosion but an equilibrium of forces in the Earth's crust that controls the "growth" of mountains / Study in "Nature" Which forces and mechanisms determine the height of mountains? Researchers at the University of Münster and the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) in Potsdam have now found a surprising answer: It is not erosion and weathering of rocks that determine the upper limit of mountain belts, but rather an equilibrium of forces in the Earth's crust.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 09.06.2020
Volcanic activity and changes in Earth's mantle were key to rise of atmospheric oxygen
Volcanic activity and changes in Earth’s mantle were key to rise of atmospheric oxygen
Oxygen first accumulated in the Earth's atmosphere about 2.4 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. A long-standing puzzle has been that geologic clues suggest early bacteria were photosynthesizing and pumping out oxygen hundreds of millions of years before then. Where was it all going? Something was holding back oxygen's rise.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 08.06.2020
First global map of rockfalls on the Moon
A research team from ETH Zurich and the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Göttingen counted over 136,000 rockfalls on the moon caused by asteroid impacts. Even billions of years old landscapes are still changing. In October 2015, a spectacular rockfall occurred in the Swiss Alps: in the late morning hours, a large, snow-covered block with a volume of more than 1500 cubic meters suddenly detached from the summit of Mel de la Niva.

Earth Sciences - 03.06.2020
New discovery could highlight areas where earthquakes are less likely to occur
Scientists from Cardiff University have discovered specific conditions that occur along the ocean floor where two tectonic plates are more likely to slowly creep past one another as opposed to drastically slipping and creating catastrophic earthquakes. The team have shown that where fractures lie on the ocean floor, at the junction of two tectonic plates, sufficient water is able to enter those fractures and trigger the formation of weak minerals which in turn helps the two tectonic plates to slowly slide past one another.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 29.05.2020
UW-Madison scientist helps set national earth sciences research priorities for next decade
Andrea Dutton, examining rock samples at the University of Florida, says, "Earth science issues impact our daily lives in many different ways. So, when policies are developed, it's imperative they are at least informed and evidence-based so we can make good decisions about what to do” Photo by Erica Brouch On May 20, 2020, the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine published a report that provides a framework for the next 10 years of research in the earth sciences.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 28.05.2020
4000 Years of contact, conflict and cultural change had little genetic impact in Near East
A new way of looking at marine evolution over the past 540 million years has shown that levels of biodiversity in our oceans have remained fairly constant, rather than increasing continuously over the last 200 million years, as scientists previously thought. A team led by researchers from the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Birmingham have used a big data approach to study this question, which has been disputed by palaeobiologists in recent years.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 26.05.2020
Dinosaur-dooming asteroid struck Earth at 'deadliest possible' angle
Dinosaur-dooming asteroid struck Earth at ’deadliest possible’ angle
New simulations from Imperial College London have revealed the asteroid that doomed the dinosaurs struck Earth at the -deadliest possible- angle. The simulations show that the asteroid hit Earth at an angle of about 60 degrees , which maximised the amount of climate-changing gases thrust into the upper atmosphere.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 26.05.2020
Yale finds a (much) earlier birth date for tectonic plates
Yale finds a (much) earlier birth date for tectonic plates
Yale geophysicists reported that Earth's ever-shifting, underground network of tectonic plates was firmly in place more than 4 billion years ago - at least a billion years earlier than scientists generally thought. Tectonic plates are large slabs of rock embedded in the Earth's crust and upper mantle, the next layer down.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.05.2020
Mapping dry wildfire fuels with AI and new satellite data
Mapping dry wildfire fuels with AI and new satellite data
Researchers have developed a deep-learning model that maps fuel moisture levels in fine detail across 12 western states, opening a door for better fire predictions. As California and the American West head into fire season amid the coronavirus pandemic, scientists are harnessing artificial intelligence and new satellite data to help predict blazes across the region.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.05.2020
Millions of people drink groundwater contaminated with arsenic
Millions of people drink groundwater contaminated with arsenic
Today, one third of the world's population obtains its drinking water and water for irrigation from groundwater reserves. Global population growth and water scarcity due to climate change mean that the pressure on this resource is continually increasing. However, many wells are contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic.

Earth Sciences - Computer Science - 19.05.2020
New technique separates industrial noise from natural seismic signals
New technique separates industrial noise from natural seismic signals
A transformative, cloud-computing approach to analyzing data helps researchers better understand seismic activity For the first time, we were able to identify this noise from some large machines as a distinct signal and pull it from the dataset, allowing us to separate natural signals from anthropogenic ones.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 18.05.2020
Mars: where mud flows like lava
Mars: where mud flows like lava
The surface of the planet Mars bears probable traces of -sedimentary volcanism-, a geological phenomenon that leads to the eruption of mud from underground. But how does a mixture of sediment and water behave in the open air on the Red Planet? Conditions there are extremely different from those on Earth - atmospheric pressure is 150 times lower and temperatures are generally negative.

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