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Earth Sciences - Environment - 29.03.2021
Scientists zero in on the role of volcanoes in the demise of dinosaurs
Scientists zero in on the role of volcanoes in the demise of dinosaurs
Researchers have uncovered evidence suggesting that volcanic carbon emissions were not a major driver in Earth's most recent extinction event. Even though volcanic carbon emissions alone couldn't have triggered the mass extinction, our data highlights their influence on our planet's climate and habitability Sally Gibson Earth has experienced five major extinction events over the last 500 million years, the fifth and most recent responsible for wiping out the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 26.03.2021
AI provides debris flow warnings
AI provides debris flow warnings
When it comes to debris avalanches and mudslides, there is usually very little warning. Using seismic monitoring and machine learning, researchers from ETH Zurich and WSL have developed an alarm system that can provide early warning of debris flows at Illgraben. Debris flows are a mixture of boulders, sediments and water.

Earth Sciences - 23.03.2021
New basalt type discovered beneath the ocean
New basalt type discovered beneath the ocean
A new type of rock created during large and exceptionally hot volcanic eruptions has been discovered beneath the Pacific Ocean. An international team of researchers including from the University of Leeds unearthed the previously unknown form of basalt after drilling through the Pacific Ocean floor. The discovery suggests that ocean floor eruptions sourced in the Earth’s mantle were even hotter and more voluminous than previously thought.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 22.03.2021
Seafloor nutrient vital in global food chain
Seafloor nutrient vital in global food chain
Eroded seabed rocks are providing an essential source of nutrition for drifting marine organisms at the base of the food chain, according to new research. The findings, led by the University, show that iron – an essential nutrient for microscopic marine algae known as phytoplankton – is being released from sediments on the deep ocean floor.

Earth Sciences - 18.03.2021
TU Graz Researchers Identify Chemical Processes as Key to Understanding Landslides
TU Graz Researchers Identify Chemical Processes as Key to Understanding Landslides
The study results are based on investigations of repeated mass movements and are expected to benefit planning, maintenance, and development of transportation infrastructure in affected areas. Mass movements such as landslides and hill-slope debris flows cause billions of euros in economic damage around the world every year.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 17.03.2021
Losing rivers
Losing rivers
ETH Zurich and University of California Santa Barbara researchers reveal the extent to which rivers across the USA are losing flow to aquifers. Water is an ephemeral thing. It can emerge from an isolated spring, as if by magic, giving birth to a babbling brook. It can also course through a mighty river, seeping into the soil until all that remains downstream is a dry streambed, the nearby trees offering the only hint as to where the water has disappeared.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 16.03.2021
Melting glaciers could speed up carbon emissions
Melting glaciers could speed up carbon emissions
Melting glaciers could be triggering a 'feedback process' that causes further climate change, according to new research. An international research team led by the University has for the first time linked glacier-fed mountain rivers with higher rates of plant material decomposition, a major process in the global carbon cycle.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 16.03.2021
Lightning strikes played vital role in origins of life on Earth
Lightning strikes played vital role in origins of life on Earth
Lightning strikes were just as important as meteorites in creating the perfect conditions for life to emerge on Earth, geologists say. Minerals delivered to Earth in meteorites more than 4 billion years ago have long been advocated as key ingredients for the development of life on our planet. Scientists believed minimal amounts of these minerals were also brought to early Earth through billions of lightning strikes.

Earth Sciences - Chemistry - 12.03.2021
Traces of Earth's early magma ocean identified in Greenland rocks
Traces of Earth’s early magma ocean identified in Greenland rocks
New research led by the University of Cambridge has found rare evidence - preserved in the chemistry of ancient rocks from Greenland - which tells of a time when Earth was almost entirely molten. It's astonishing that we can even hold these rocks in our hands - let alone get so much detail about the early history of our planet Helen Williams The study, published in the journal Science Advances , yields information on an important period in our planet's formation, when a deep sea of incandescent magma stretched across Earth's surface and extended hundreds of kilometres into its interior.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 12.03.2021
Glaciers and enigmatic stone stripes in the Ethiopian Highlands
Glaciers and enigmatic stone stripes in the Ethiopian Highlands
Although past temperature variations in the tropics are of great importance to understanding the global climate system, little is known about their extent and chronological course. Researchers under the leadership of the University of Bern have now been able to demonstrate strong local cooling in the tropics during the last glacial period on the basis of glacier fluctuations and large stone stripes in the Ethiopian Highlands.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 11.03.2021
Hubble sees new atmosphere forming on a rocky exoplanet
Hubble sees new atmosphere forming on a rocky exoplanet
For the first time, scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have found evidence of volcanic activity reforming the atmosphere on a rocky planet around a distant star. The planet, GJ 1132 b, has a similar density, size, and age to Earth. It is a window onto the geology of another world Paul Rimmer The planet GJ 1132 b appears to have begun life as a gaseous world with a thick blanket of atmosphere.

Earth Sciences - 11.03.2021
Untangling the Heat Paradox Along Major Faults
A new paper explores the physics that drive big earthquakes along plate boundaries New research from Caltech seeks to explain the size of the forces acting on so-called "mature faults"-long-lived faults along major plate boundaries like the San Andreas Fault in California-in an effort to better understand the physics that drive the major earthquakes that occur along them.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 09.03.2021
UofG researchers aid in historic meteorite recovery
University of Glasgow researchers have played a key role in the first successful recovery of a meteorite on UK soil in nearly three decades. Dr Luke Daly, from the School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, was part of the international collaboration which tracked the entry of a fireball over Britain on Sunday 28 February.

Earth Sciences - Transport - 04.03.2021
How do you know where volcanic ash will end up?
How do you know where volcanic ash will end up?
A team from the University of Geneva studied the ash from volcanic eruptions and discovered two effects of ash sedimentation that will improve our ability to predict the danger posed by volcanic ash clouds. When the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland erupted in April 2010, air traffic was interrupted for six days and then disrupted until May.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 04.03.2021
Volcanoes might light up the night sky of this planet
Volcanoes might light up the night sky of this planet
Until now, researchers have found no evidence of global tectonic activity on planets outside our solar system. Under the leadership of the University of Bern and the National Center of Competence in Research NCCR PlanetS, scientists have now found that the material inside planet LHS 3844b flows from one hemisphere to the other and could be responsible for numerous volcanic eruptions on one side of the planet.

Earth Sciences - 03.03.2021
The "Breathing" Himalaya
Great Mountains Grow in a Cycle of Rising and Falling How and when do mountains grow? It is tempting to think of mountain formation as something that takes place only extremely gradually, on timescales of tens of millions of years. One tectonic plate slowly pushes up against and slightly under another, until eventually up rises a mountain range.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 01.03.2021
Understanding the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Landscape Dynamics
Heidelberg geoinformation scientists develop new computer-based method to analyse topographic changes The Earth's surface is subject to continual changes that dynamically shape natural landscapes. Global phenomena like climate change play a role, as do short-term, local events of natural or human origin.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 01.03.2021
Wildfires May Have Larger Effects on Cloud Formation and Climate Change
As the frequency and size of wildfires continues to increase worldwide, new research from Carnegie Mellon University scientists shows how the chemical aging of the particles emitted by these fires can lead to more extensive cloud formation and intense storm development in the atmosphere. The research was published online Advances.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.02.2021
Unique evidence links meteorite impact in Mexico to global extinction
Unique evidence links meteorite impact in Mexico to global extinction
Researchers find asteroid dust in impact crater that signalled end of dinosaurs VUB professor Steven Goderis and his team have published unique evidence linking the extinction of dinosaurs to the impact of an asteroid 66 million years ago. For the first time, the scientists found evidence of dust remnants from an asteroid in the Chicxulub impact crater itself in Mexico.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.02.2021
Earth’s Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium 
A new study involving researchers from UCL has found consistent evidence of a decline in ocean currents, with the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), at its weakest in over 1,000 years.