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Environment - Paleontology - 16.09.2020
Discovery of a new mass extinction
Discovery of a new mass extinction
Summary of major extinction events through time, highlighting the new, Carnian Pluvial Episode at 233 million years ago. © D. Bonadonna/ MUSE, Trento. 16 September 2020 It's not often a new mass extinction is identified; after all, such events were so devastating they really stand out in the fossil record.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 16.09.2020
Most landslides in western Oregon triggered by heavy rainfall, not big earthquakes
Most landslides in western Oregon triggered by heavy rainfall, not big earthquakes
Researchers at the University of Washington, Portland State University and the University of Oregon have shown that deep-seated landslides in the central Oregon Coast Range are triggered mostly by rainfall, not by large offshore earthquakes. The open-access paper was published Sept. 16 in Science Advances.

Environment - Life Sciences - 16.09.2020
Marine animals live where ocean is most 'breathable,' but ranges could shrink with climate change
Marine animals live where ocean is most ’breathable,’ but ranges could shrink with climate change
As oceans warm due to climate change, scientists are trying to predict how marine animals - from backboned fish to spineless jellyfish - will react. Laboratory experiments indicate that many could theoretically tolerate temperatures far higher than what they encounter today. But these studies don't mean that marine animals can maintain their current ranges in warmer oceans, according to Curtis Deutsch , an associate professor of oceanography at the University of Washington.

Environment - 15.09.2020
Reforestation can only partially restore tropical soils
Research team from Göttingen and the USA investigates subsoil in deforested forest areas Tropical forest soils play a crucial role in providing vital ecosystem functions. They provide nutrients for plants, store carbon and regulate greenhouse gases, as well as storing and filtering water, and protection against erosion.

Environment - 14.09.2020
Mediterranean and tropical biodiversity most vulnerable to human pressures
Animals in tropical and Mediterranean areas are the most sensitive to climate change and land use pressures, finds a new study by UCL researchers. The findings, published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution , show how extinction risks are not evenly distributed worldwide, and suggest that large declines in tropical biodiversity are likely to occur imminently.

Environment - 14.09.2020
Satellite images display changes in the condition of European forests
Satellite images display changes in the condition of European forests
Newly created map indicates openings in the European forest canopy The forest canopy (the closed vegetation cover consisting of treetops) is rapidly declining according to a research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.

Environment - 14.09.2020
More than 90 per cent of protected areas are disconnected
More than 90 per cent of protected areas are disconnected
Ongoing land clearing for agriculture, mining and urbanisation is isolating and disconnecting Earth's protected natural areas from each other, a new study shows. Lead author Michelle Ward, from The University of Queensland's School of Earth and Environmental Sciences , said the findings were “alarming'.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 11.09.2020
Worldwide loss of phosphorus due to soil erosion quantified for the first time
Worldwide loss of phosphorus due to soil erosion quantified for the first time
Phosphorus is essential for agriculture, yet this important plant nutrient is increasingly being lost from soils around the world. The primary cause is soil erosion, reports an international research team led by the University of Basel. The study Communications shows which continents and regions are most strongly affected.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 11.09.2020
Loss of sea otters accelerating the effects of climate change
The impacts of predator loss and climate change are combining to devastate living reefs that have defined Alaskan kelp forests for centuries, according to new research published in Science. "We discovered that massive limestone reefs built by algae underpin the Aleutian Islands' kelp forest ecosystem," said Douglas Rasher, a senior research scientist at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and the lead author of the study.

Electroengineering - Environment - 10.09.2020
Transistor-integrated cooling for a more powerful chip
Transistor-integrated cooling for a more powerful chip
Researchers have created a single chip that combines a transistor and micro-fluidic cooling system. Managing the heat generated in electronics is a huge problem, especially with the constant push to reduce the size and pack as many transistors as possible in the same chip. The whole problem is how to manage such high heat fluxes efficiently.

Environment - 10.09.2020
Bumblebees benefit from faba bean cultivation
Bumblebees benefit from faba bean cultivation
Research team led by the University of Göttingen investigates influence of -greening measures- on pollinators About one third of the payments received by farmers are linked to specific -greening measures- to promote biodiversity. The cultivation of nitrogen-fixing legumes is very popular. However, these measures have been criticized because the benefits for biodiversity are unclear.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.09.2020
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global wildlife populations declined by two-thirds since 1970
Global animal populations have on average declined by two-thirds in less than half a century, according to the WWF's Living Planet Report 2020 involving UCL researchers, released today. The Living Planet Index (LPI), provided by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), shows that factors believed to increase the planet's vulnerability to pandemics such as COVID-19 - including land-use change and the use and trade of wildlife - were also some of the drivers behind the 68% average decline in global mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish populations between 1970 and 2016.

Environment - 10.09.2020
Amphipods: a miraculous increase in biodiversity
Amphipods: a miraculous increase in biodiversity
Until recently, researchers assumed that Switzerland had around 20 native species of amphipods. Now, a project by the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and the University of Zurich has revealed that there are actually more than 40. It is always worth taking a closer look, because we can only protect the things that we know exist.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.09.2020
66 million years of Earth’s climate uncovered from ocean sediments
Changes in the Earth's climate over the last 66 million years have been revealed in unprecedented detail by a team involving UCL researchers, highlighting four distinctive climatic states and the natural millionand thousand-year variability that Earth's climate has experienced. , the new global "climate reference curve" created by the team is the first record to continually and accurately trace how the Earth's climate has changed since the great extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Environment - Life Sciences - 09.09.2020
National parks preserve more than species
National parks preserve more than species
Study of Costa Rican rainforest shows national parks are more resilient than expected National parks are safe havens for endangered and threatened species, but an analysis by Rice University data scientists finds parks and protected areas can preserve more than species. In a study  published online this week in the journal Biotropica , Rice ecologists and data scientists Daniel Gorczynski and Lydia Beaudrot used thousands of camera trap photos to assess the large mammal diversity in the protected rainforest of Costa Rica's Braulio Carrillo National Park.

Environment - 09.09.2020
Downward Trend Is Reversible
Ambitious, integrated action combining conservation and restoration efforts with a transformation of the food system. This is the recipe for turning the tide of biodiversity loss by 2050 or earlier, a new study led by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) with participation of researchers from the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) suggests.

Environment - 08.09.2020
Consequences of the 2018 summer drought
Research team with participation from Göttingen University investigates effects on plants, forests and grassland The drought that hit central and northern Europe in summer 2018 had serious effects on crops, forests and grasslands. Researchers from the European Research Infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), including researchers from the University of Göttingen, are showing what effects this had and what lessons can be learned.

Economics / Business - Environment - 08.09.2020
Multinationals’ supply chains account for a fifth of global emissions
A fifth of carbon dioxide emissions come from multinational companies' global supply chains, according to a new study led by UCL and Tianjin University that shows the scope of multinationals' influence on climate change. The study, published , maps the emissions generated by multinationals' assets and suppliers abroad, finding that the flow of investment is typically from developed countries to developing ones - meaning that emissions are in effect outsourced to poorer parts of the world.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 08.09.2020
Nationwide decline of threatened plant species in Switzerland
Nationwide decline of threatened plant species in Switzerland
The Swiss Flora is one of the richest and most diverse in Europe. However, more than 700 plant species are considered to be threatened. In a nationwide project over 400 volunteer botanists revisited known populations of all threatened and rare plant species in Switzerland and recorded their presence or absence.

Life Sciences - Environment - 08.09.2020
Gen Z not ready to eat lab-grown meat, survey reveals
Gen Z not ready to eat lab-grown meat, survey reveals
New research by the University of Sydney and Curtin University has found that, despite having a great concern for the environment and animal welfare, Generation Z is not ready to eat lab-grown meat. Gen Z are the new kids on the block. As a cohort of 5 million people born between 1995-2015 encompassing 20 percent of the Australian population - they're consumers to be reckoned with.
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