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Environment - Computer Science - 05.07.2024
How Cities Can Adapt to Climate Change with Artificial Intelligence
The Freiburg project 'I4C - Intelligence for Cities' has developed locally precise climate models and foundations for planning tools Urban spaces are particularly susceptible to the effects of climate change, such as heat waves, floods, and storms. But which areas of a city are affected, and how can city planners respond? 'I4C - Intelligence for Cities' is an interdisciplinary project conducted by the University of Freiburg and several Fraunhofer Institutes.

Environment - Architecture - 04.07.2024
Cool roofs are best at beating cities' heat
Cool roofs are best at beating cities’ heat
Painting roofs white or covering them with a reflective coating would be more effective at cooling cities like London than vegetation-covered "green roofs," street-level vegetation or solar panels, finds a new study led by UCL researchers. Conversely, extensive use of air conditioning would warm the outside environment by as much as 1 degree C in London's dense city centre, the researchers found.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 04.07.2024
Grasses in the Fog: Plants Support Life in the Desert
Grasses in the Fog: Plants Support Life in the Desert
Researchers from the Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment (SHEP) at the University of Tübingen and the Senckenberg Natural History Museum in Görlitz have studied the role of the desert grass Stipagrostis sabulicola in the African Namib Desert. In their study, published in the journal Scientific Reports , they show that the plant is able to absorb moisture from fog events and thus forms an essential basis of an - altogether unexpectedly complex - food web in the drought-stricken landscape.

Life Sciences - Environment - 04.07.2024
Protecting biodiversity on a global scale: ready-to-use genetic diversity indicators
Genetic diversity is fundamental to the maintenance and resilience of species and ecosystems. In the context of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (CMBKM), of which France is a signatory, an international consortium, including INRAE, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University and the Conservatoire d'espaces naturels d'Occitanie, has developed and demonstrated the feasibility of using 2 genetic diversity indicators based on existing and available data without the need for DNA.

Life Sciences - Environment - 04.07.2024
New piranha species discovered in Bolivia
New piranha species discovered in Bolivia
A team of biologists, with the participation of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), has discovered a new species of piranha in the upper Madeira River system in Bolivia. The newly identified Serrasalmus magallanesi adds a new link to the rich biodiversity of the Amazon basin. This finding underscores the importance of continuing research on the region's ichthyofauna for its proper conservation.

Life Sciences - Environment - 04.07.2024
Protecting biodiversity worldwide: genetic diversity indicators are validated and ready for use
Conserving genetic diversity is an essential part of maintaining the health and resilience of species and ecosystems. The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework is requiring its signatories, among them France, to use two genetic diversity indicators that can be estimated using readily available data that may or may not be DNA based.

Environment - 04.07.2024
Researchers listen to the hearts of bats in flight
Researchers listen to the hearts of bats in flight
Researchers from Konstanz have measured the heart rate of bats over several days in the wild, including complete flights - the first time this has been done for a bat species. To record the heart rate of male common noctule bats during flight, the scientists attached heart rate transmitters weighing less than one gram to the animals, which they then accompanied in an airplane while the bats flew, sometimes for more than an hour, in search of food.

Environment - Innovation - 04.07.2024
Cutting-edge technology detects nanoplastics in water - instantly
A McGill-led research team has developed the first real-time, on-site technology capable of detecting and deciphering nanoplastics from all'other particles in water, a capacity akin to being able to find a needle in a haystack within milliseconds. Microplastic pieces are between 1 micrometre and 5 millimetres, roughly equivalent to a grain of rice.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 03.07.2024
Treasures beneath the ocean floor? Seawater plays role in gold formation
Understanding how gold forms is crucial for knowing where to find it and how to extract it sustainably. McGill researchers have answered a long-standing question in geology that could lead to new ore discoveries. Researchers traveled to the remote Brucejack gold deposit in northwestern British Columbia to study and collect ancient ore-bearing rocks.

Environment - Materials Science - 03.07.2024
How to increase the rate of plastics recycling
A national bottle deposit fee could make a dramatic difference in reducing plastic waste, MIT researchers report. While recycling systems and bottle deposits have become increasingly widespread in the U.S., actual rates of recycling are "abysmal," according to a team of MIT researchers who studied the rates for recycling of PET, the plastic commonly used in beverage bottles.

Environment - 02.07.2024
Gulf fish more resilient to climate change than thought
Gulf fish more resilient to climate change than thought
Some fish species in the Arabian Gulf's coral reefs are more resilient to climate change than previously thought, an international team of scientists has found. The study, published in Nature Communications , challenges current scientific models which argue that by 2050, coral reef fish could shrink by 14-39 percent in size due to increasing temperatures under climate change.

Environment - Health - 02.07.2024
Emissions Trading Also Creates Health Benefits
Emissions Trading Also Creates Health Benefits
The EU Emissions Trading System is not only good for reducing CO2 and for the climate. It also results in considerable health benefits due to reduced air pollution and saves hundreds of billions of euros, according to a recently released study by a team at Universität Hamburg. The research team from the Cluster of Excellence Climate, Climatic Change, and Society (CLICCS) at Universität Hamburg analyzed the indirect effects of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) on hazardous air pollutants such as sulfur oxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxides.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 02.07.2024
Midnight sun on Svalbard: expedition to phytoplankton
On July 5, 2024, five researchers from Radboud University will travel to the far north to research climate change on Svalbard. For a week, the scientists, led by earth scientist Wytze Lenstra, will take samples of the sea floor and water column in one of the fjords. The archipelago is seen as a "natural laboratory" for studying the impact of climate change in the future: these Arctic regions are warming up to about four times faster than the global average.

Environment - Campus - 02.07.2024
UV and UPV researchers study the impact of climate change on bird productivity
Research staff from the Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology of the Universitat de València and the Gandia Campus of the Universitat Politècnica de València have studied the consequences of climate change on the productivity of two species of passerine birds. The results show that extreme weather conditions, such as warmer temperatures and higher frequent torrential rainfall could threaten the preservation of the population of these birds.

Environment - Life Sciences - 02.07.2024
How climate change is affecting where species live
As the climate warms, many species are on the move, raising new challenges for policy-makers around the world. Shifts in the ranges of mosquitoes and disease-bearing ticks and bats are introducing illnesses such as malaria and Lyme disease into regions where health-care systems are unprepared. Movements of commercially important fish from one jurisdiction to another are shifting job opportunities and causing trade disputes.

Environment - 02.07.2024
Light green hydrogen will do
Whether sustainably produced hydrogen needs to be 100 percent green is currently under debate. Using the production of ammonia and artificial fertiliser as examples, researchers have calculated that "nearly sustainable" hydrogen would be better in the end. There's a role for sustainably produced hydrogen in the energy transition, and not only as an energy storage medium or as fuel for lorries.

Environment - 01.07.2024
How humans transform island bird communities
It is known that people have been bringing alien bird species onto islands for thousands of years, but how this has shaped the diversity of those species has just been brought to light by a study soon to be published in the journal Ecology Letters. An international team of scientists led by three researchers from the CNRS and Paris-Saclay University 1 has shown that, on most of the 407 islands they considered, humans have a greater impact on alien species diversity than do geographic variables.

Life Sciences - Environment - 01.07.2024
Australia's 'Easter bunny', the bilby, has had its genome fully sequenced
Australia’s ’Easter bunny’, the bilby, has had its genome fully sequenced
Under pressure from predatory foxes and cats and competing with feral rabbits, the Greater bilby has lost more than 80 percent of its habitat. Conservation work led by Professor Carolyn Hogg is designed to help save the bilby from extinction. A consortium of scientists led by the University of Sydney has for the first time sequenced the entire genome of the Australian bilby.

Paleontology - Environment - 01.07.2024
The grapes that give us wine likely originated in the New World 60 million years ago
Study: Cenozoic seeds of Vitaceae reveal a deep history of extinction and dispersal in the Neotropics The ancestor of Vitoid grapes that gave rise to commercial grapes likely originated in the New World, in the tropical belt of the Americas and the Caribbean, 60 million years ago, according to a study co-authored by a University of Michigan researcher.

Life Sciences - Environment - 28.06.2024
Animal behaviour and evolution
Animal behaviour and evolution
A guest commentary by biologists Niklas Kästner and Tobias Zimmermann, editors of the online magazine "ETHOlogisch - Verhalten verstehen" ("ETHOlogical - Understanding Behaviour") A mouse which disappears in a hole, a bee heading for a blossom, a blackbird in full-throated song - we are surrounded by animals which interact with their environment in certain ways.