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Health - Life Sciences - 12.10.2009
Impaired foetal growth increases risk of asthma
A new study from Karolinska Institutet shows that children born with low birth weight are at a higher risk of developing asthma later in life. The study, which is published in the journal Pediatrics, is based on data on the incidence of asthma in 10,918 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. Questionnaire data on asthma in 9- and 12- year old twins was linked to the national Swedish Medical Birth Registry which records, amongst other data, birth weight and gestational age (i.e.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.10.2009
Gene Team: Researchers Make Key Gene Discovery
Gene Team: Researchers Make Key Gene Discovery
October 08, 2009 — Miami — Researchers at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have identified a family of genes that may control the ability of the optic nerve to regenerate. The discovery of this gene family, as published in the October 9 issue of Science, is a big step forward for both visual science and neuroscience.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 01.10.2009
Oldest hominid skeleton provides new evidence for human evolution
Oldest hominid skeleton provides new evidence for human evolution
The discovery reveals the biology of the first stage of human evolution better than anything seen to date. Los Alamos geologist is codirector of international discovery team Partial skeleton of Ardipithecus ramidus, a hominid species living about 4.4 million years ago in Ethiopia. This female stood about 1.2 meters high.

Health - Life Sciences - 30.09.2009
Potential for drugs to treat age-related diseases
UCL scientists have extended the lifespan of mice by up to a fifth and cut the number of age-related diseases the animals suffer. The research which mimics the health benefits of reducing calorie intake and suggests that drug treatments for ageing and age-related diseases are feasible. In the 1930s scientists showed that reducing the calorie intake of laboratory rats while maintaining sufficient vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients in the animals can have health benefits.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 30.09.2009
Where religious belief and disbelief meet in the brain
When it comes to religion, believers and nonbelievers appear to think very differently. But at the level of the brain, is believing in God different from believing that the sun is a star or that 4 is an even number? While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief.

Health - Life Sciences - 29.09.2009
Study IDs chemicals that could lead to new drugs for genetic disorders, cancer
Published in the Sept. 28 edition of the Journal of Experimental Medicine , the findings could lead to new medications for genetic diseases, such as cancer and muscular dystrophy, that are sparked by missing proteins. "When DNA changes, such as nonsense mutations, occur in the middle rather than the end of a protein-producing signal, they act like a stop sign that tells the cell to prematurely interrupt protein synthesis," said Dr. Richard Gatti, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine and of human genetics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.09.2009
UCLA scientists make paralyzed rats walk again after spinal cord injury
UCLA researchers have discovered that a combination of drugs, electrical stimulation and regular exercise can enable paralyzed rats to walk and even run while supporting their full weight on a treadmill. Published Sept. 20 in the online edition of the journal Nature Neuroscience, the findings suggest that the regeneration of severed nerve fibers is not required for paraplegic rats to learn to walk again.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 16.09.2009
Photoswitches shed light on burst swimming in zebrafish
BERKELEY — A new way to select and switch on one cell type in an organism using light has helped answer a long-standing question about the function of one class of enigmatic nerve cells in the spinal cord. Through targeted insertion of light-sensitive switches into these cells in awake zebrafish larvae, University of California, Berkeley, and UC San Francisco scientists have found that these mysterious cells trigger burst swimming the periodic tail twitching typical of larvae.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.09.2009
UCLA researchers develop biomarker for rapid relief of major depression
It is a long, slow slog to treat major depression. Many antidepressant medications are available, but no single biomarker or diagnostic test exists to predict which one is right for an individual. As a result, for more than half of all patients, the first drug prescribed doesn't work, and it can take months to figure out what does.

Health - Life Sciences - 08.09.2009
Vital role in new Alzheimer's discovery
Vital role in new Alzheimer’s discovery
PA 230/09 The University of Nottingham has played a crucial role in the discovery of two new genes associated with Alzheimer's disease. The results from the largest ever Alzheimer's genome-wide association study (GWAS) have been described by the Alzheimer's Research Trust as a leap forward for dementia research and could provide valuable new leads in the race to find treatments and possible cures for the disease.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.09.2009
The molecular 'grip' of thrombosis
The molecular ’grip’ of thrombosis
PA 226/09 New research at The University of Nottingham could help prevent the harmful blood clots associated with heart disease and stroke, the single greatest cause of disease-related death worldwide. Scientists have gained new insights into the coagulation of blood in a study which could pave the way for new treatments aimed at preventing thrombosis — clots in the blood that obstruct the flow of blood through the circulatory system — as well as treatment of the inherited bleeding disorder thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Life Sciences - Veterinary - 07.09.2009
Florian Engert Named Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology
Cambridge, Mass. September 7, 2009 - Neurobiologist Florian Engert, a pioneer in the development of the larval zebrafish as a system for study of neural circuits and behavior, has been named professor of molecular and cellular biology in Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences, effective July 1, 2009.

Health - Life Sciences - 03.09.2009
Improving vaccines to trigger T cell as well as antibody response
Intracellular pathogens exhibit a wide variety of behaviors that the immune system has learned to recognize, such as lurking in the endosome (salmonella), the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies (Legionella), the lysozyme (Q fever) and the cytosol (Listeria). Effective vaccines must mimic this behavior in order to stimulate a complete immune response.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 27.08.2009
Mice Living in Sandy Hills Quickly Evolved Lighter Coloration
Cambridge, Mass. August 27, 2009 - In a vivid illustration of natural selection at work, scientists at Harvard University have found that deer mice living in Nebraska's Sand Hills quickly evolved lighter coloration after glaciers deposited sand dunes atop what had been much darker soil. The work is described this week in the journal Science.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.08.2009
Research sheds light on fate of plant life in Arctic
The research findings, published in the Journal of Ecology, show that climate change during the winter months is having a significant impact on the plant life in parts of the Arctic. Research into this area has received little attention when compared with summer warming studies, despite the detrimental effects winter warming is having.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.08.2009
Omega-3 research sheds light on inflammation trigger
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have discovered a previously unknown step in early inflammation which is controlled by omega -3 and omega -6 fatty acids, potentially leading to clarification around conflicting health and diet advice on these two essential nutrients. Ed Rainger, from the Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences at the University, has revealed how omega 3 fatty acids from dietary fish oil can block a previously unknown step in blood vessel inflammation.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 21.08.2009
Diarrhea disorder Giardiasis caused by two different parasite species
Researchers from Uppsala University and the Karolinska Institutet have found major genetic differences between the human variants of the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis. Sequencing of the genomes using the latest technologies shows that people are infected by two different Giardia species, according to a study published in the journal PLOS Pathogens.

Health - Life Sciences - 16.08.2009
Major new lead for Parkinson´s treatment
A major lead for potential new treatments for Parkinson´s has been discovered by researchers at the University of Sheffield´s Department of Biomedical Science. The study, primarily funded by the Parkinson´s Disease Society and published online by the journal Nature Neuroscience this week, identified a pathway inside nerve cells that could be stimulated to protect the dying cells affected by Parkinson´s.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.08.2009
’Trojan Horse Trick’ as the cause of a fatal fungal outbreak in humans
New research from the University of Birmingham has uncovered the reason why a strain of fungus has evolved to cause fatal infections in the Pacific Northwest of America. The fungus Cryptoccocus gattii is normally a very rare cause of human disease in the tropics. However, in recent years an aggressive strain of this fungus has spread across the Pacific Northwest of America, causing at least eight deaths and more than 200 infections in a single outbreak on Vancouver Island (VIO).

Life Sciences - Health - 05.08.2009
Unstable proteins can cause premature ageing
The normal ageing process has long been linked to problems with cell respiration, the process through which the cells extract energy from nutrients. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now shown how certain proteins that are synthesised in the cellular mitochondria - popularly known as the cells' power plants - become unstable and disintegrate, which in turn can impair cell respiration and cause premature ageing.