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Life Sciences - Innovation - 13.06.2024
With programmable pixels, novel sensor improves imaging of neural activity
New camera chip design allows for optimizing each pixel's timing to maximize signal-to-noise ratio when tracking real-time visual indicator of neural voltage. Neurons communicate electrically, so to understand how they produce such brain functions as memory, neuroscientists must track how their voltage changes - sometimes subtly - on the timescale of milliseconds.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 13.06.2024
New insights into the brain regions involved in paranoia
New insights into the brain regions involved in paranoia
Through a novel approach, Yale researchers translate data from monkeys to better understand how paranoia arises in the human brain. The capacity to adjust beliefs about one's actions and their consequences in a constantly changing environment is a defining characteristic of advanced cognition. Disruptions to this ability, however, can negatively affect cognition and behavior, leading to such states of mind as paranoia, or the belief that others intend to harm us.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 13.06.2024
Scientists preserve DNA in an amber-like polymer
Scientists preserve DNA in an amber-like polymer
With their "T-REX" method, DNA embedded in the polymer could be used for long-term storage of genomes or digital data such as photos and music. In the movie "Jurassic Park," scientists extracted DNA that had been preserved in amber for millions of years, and used it to create a population of long-extinct dinosaurs.

Life Sciences - 12.06.2024
Human Brains Can Tell Deepfake Voices from Real Ones
Human Brains Can Tell Deepfake Voices from Real Ones
Do our brains process natural voices and deepfake voices differently? Research conducted at the University of Zurich indicates that this is the case. In a new study, researchers have identified two brain regions that respond differently to natural and deepfake voices. Much like fingerprints, our voices are unique and can help us identify people.

Life Sciences - 12.06.2024
Monkey brains recognize human voices
Monkey brains recognize human voices
A recent study shows that neurons in monkey brains respond to human voices: a groundbreaking discovery of the neural mechanisms of vocal perception. The groundbreaking study, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on June 11, 2024, reveals a population of neurons in monkey brains that selectively respond to human voices.

Life Sciences - 12.06.2024
Fruit fly brain shows how simple commands turn into complex behaviors
Fruit fly brain shows how simple commands turn into complex behaviors
Researchers at EPFL have discovered how networks of neurons in fruit flies transform simple brain signals into coordinated actions. This sheds light on the neural mechanisms underlying complex behaviors for potential application in robotics. Understanding how animals, including humans, transform brain signals into coordinated movements is a fundamental question in neuroscience.

Life Sciences - Environment - 12.06.2024
Polyandrous birds evolve faster than monogamous ones, says research
Polyandrous birds evolve faster than monogamous ones, says research
A new study by the Milner Centre for Evolution suggests that mating systems of birds have a stronger effect on evolution rates than previously thought. New research led by the University of Bath's Milner Centre for Evolution shows that shorebird species where females breed with multiple males in each season evolve significantly faster than monogamous species.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.06.2024
Breakthrough Approach Enables Bidirectional BCI Functionality
Brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs, hold immense potential for individuals with a wide range of neurological conditions, but the road to implementation is long and nuanced for both the invasive and noninvasive versions of the technology. Bin He of Carnegie Mellon University is highly driven to improve noninvasive BCIs, and his lab uses an innovative electroencephalogram (EEG) wearable to push the boundaries of what's possible.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 12.06.2024
Just thinking about a location activates mental maps in the brain
MIT neuroscientists have found that the brain uses the same cognitive representations whether navigating through space physically or mentally. As you travel your usual route to work or the grocery store, your brain engages cognitive maps stored in your hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. These maps store information about paths you have taken and locations you have been to before, so you can navigate whenever you go there.

Life Sciences - 11.06.2024
What’s going on in our brains when we plan?
Study uncovers how the brain simulates possible future actions by drawing from our stored memories. In pausing to think before making an important decision, we may imagine the potential outcomes of different choices we could make. While this 'mental simulation' is central to how we plan and make decisions in everyday life, how the brain works to accomplish this is not well understood.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.06.2024
New insights on polymicrobial infections in chronic lung diseases
Chronic lung diseases are often accelerated and exacerbated by polymicrobial infections. An international study team led by MedUni Vienna has identified two types of these so-called dysbioses in cystic fibrosis. They display distinct ecology and are also likely to respond differently to treatment. The study was published in the renowned journal Nature Communications.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 11.06.2024
Rare organ preservation in Brazilian fossil fishes
Fossils in Brazil indicate a more complex evolutionary history for ray-finned fish brains than previously anticipated, according to new research. Rodrigo Tinoco Figueroa , a Brazilian doctoral candidate at the University of Michigan, and colleagues not only found well-preserved brains in late Paleozoic ray-finned fishes, they also discovered other soft tissues-such as fragments of the heart and eyes, meninges and gill filaments-a rarity in paleontology due to the scarcity of the fossil record.

Life Sciences - Physics - 10.06.2024
Meike Bos investigated how lungs transport mucus by using physics
Applying physics to better understand complicated biological processes: that is what Meike Bos did during her PhD. She used computer models to investigate how ciliated cells in the airways move to ensure that mucus can be transported. Her research, culminating in a successful dissertation defense on 29 May, highlights the power of computational modeling in addressing complex biological phenomena.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.06.2024
Lung organoids unveil secret: How pathogens infect human lung tissue
Lung organoids unveil secret: How pathogens infect human lung tissue
How do pathogens invade the lungs? Using human lung microtissues, a team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel has uncovered the strategy used by a dangerous pathogen. The bacterium targets specific lung cells and has developed a sophisticated strategy to break through the lungs' line of defense.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.06.2024
How Human Derived RNA Fragments Help the Hepatitis E Virus
How Human Derived RNA Fragments Help the Hepatitis E Virus
If the virus incorporates host genetic segments into its genome, the infection may become chronic. Why does Hepatitis E become chronic in some patients, and why do medications not work? To find out, an international research team led by scientists from Bochum observed a patient with chronic Hepatitis E infection over a year.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.06.2024
No long-term impact of anaesthetics on children
A University of Queensland-led study has found multiple doses of anaesthetics do not compromise brain function in young children. Professor Claire Wainwright from UQ's Child Health Research Centre said the result should reassure medical practitioners and parents with children needing repeated anaesthetics.

Pharmacology - Life Sciences - 10.06.2024
Protein study could help researchers develop new antibiotics
Researchers created a water-soluble version of an important bacterial enzyme, which can now be used in drug screens to identify new antibiotics. A bacterial enzyme called histidine kinase is a promising target for new classes of antibiotics. However, it has been difficult to develop drugs that target this enzyme, because it is a "hydrophobic" protein that loses its structure once removed from its normal location in the cell membrane.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.06.2024
Inhibition of epigenetic control enzymes in immune cells as a potential new starting point in cancer immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is one of the pillars in the fight against cancer and aims to enable the body's own immune system to fight a tumor. A recent study now shows that removing certain enzymes that regulate epigenetic processes from the so-called dentritic cells of the immune system influences their development and thus improves anti-tumor immunity.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.06.2024
Cells that interpret an increase in nutrients accelerate ageing and shorten lifespan
Research shows that cells that interpret an increase in nutrients accelerate ageing and shorten lifespan Cells receive signals of an increase in nutrients, which leads to malfunction and inflammation in organs such as the pancreas, liver or kidneys. This is a discovery from the CNIO team and the Universitat de València, published in Nature Aging .

Life Sciences - 07.06.2024
Dancers are less neurotic
Amateur and professional dancers are less neurotic than people who do not dance. A new study shows A study led by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, has shown that both amateur and professional dancers are less neurotic than people who do not dance.