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Health - Life Sciences - 27.04.2021
The First Comprehensive Single-Cell Atlas of Human Teeth
The First Comprehensive Single-Cell Atlas of Human Teeth
Researchers at the University Zurich have mapped the first complete atlas of single cells that make up the human teeth. Their research shows that the composition of human dental pulp and periodontium vary greatly. Their findings open up new avenues for cell-based dental therapeutic approaches. During the last 30 years, medical and dental research has attracted a large number of scientists and practitioners working on aspects of high medical relevance that involve a combination of genetic and tissue regeneration approaches.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 27.04.2021
New MRI techniques could pave way to predict disability in multiple sclerosis
Advanced MRI techniques can detect very early changes in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), which may lead to more accurate predictions about disease progression, finds a study led by UCL researchers. The authors of the paper, published in Brain , say these previously unseen changes could have the potential to predict how disabled a person might become in the future.

Health - Life Sciences - 26.04.2021
New cancer algorithm flags genetic weaknesses in tumours
New cancer algorithm flags genetic weaknesses in tumours
A new way to identify tumours that could be sensitive to particular immunotherapies has been developed using data from thousands of NHS cancer patient samples sequenced through the 100,000 Genomes Project.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.04.2021
Branching worm with dividing internal organs growing in sea sponge
Branching worm with dividing internal organs growing in sea sponge
International research team including Göttingen University first to describe tree-like internal anatomy of symbiotic worm and sponge   The marine worm Ramisyllis multicaudata , which lives within the internal canals of a sponge, is one of only two such species possessing a branching body, with one head and multiple posterior ends.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 26.04.2021
Can a newborn's brain discriminate speech sounds?
Can a newborn’s brain discriminate speech sounds?
People's ability to perceive speech sounds has been deeply studied, specially during someone's first year of life, but what happens during the first hours after birth? Are babies born with innate abilities to perceive speech sounds, or do neural encoding processes need to age for some time? Researchers from the Institute of Neurosciences of the UB ( UBNeuro ) and the Sant Joan de Déu Research Institute (IRSJD) have created a new methodology to try to answer this basic question on human development.

Life Sciences - Health - 26.04.2021
A new perspective on the genomes of archaic humans
Researchers examined 14,000 genetic differences between modern humans and our most recent ancestors at a new level of detail. They found that differences in gene activation - not just genetic code - could underlie evolution of the brain and vocal tract. A genome by itself is like a recipe without a chef - full of important information, but in need of interpretation.

Life Sciences - 23.04.2021
Biomass production by reverse citric acid cycle
Biomass production by reverse citric acid cycle
Central metabolic pathway runs "backwards" at high carbon dioxide concentrations A research team from the University of Münster and the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has gained new insights into the citric acid cycle: At very high carbon dioxide concentrations, bacteria can also use this central metabolic pathway "backwards" to build useful compounds from carbon dioxide using the enzyme citrate synthase.

Life Sciences - Environment - 23.04.2021
Philippines once home to extinct giant
Philippines once home to extinct giant "cloud rats"
The Philippines was once home to three previously unknown species of an unusual group of rodents with fluffy tails known as "giant cloud rats", according to a new fossil discovery. All three of the newly discovered species ( Crateromys ballik, Carpomys dakal , and Batomys cagayanensis ) are thought to be extinct.

Life Sciences - Health - 23.04.2021
Feeling confinement in the gut
Resolving a missing link of research, Canadian researchers find significant microbiome changes in crew who spent 520 days in isolation to simulate a mission to Mars Crew members who took part in the Mars500 experiment showed significant changes in their gut microbiota from their 520 days in confinement, according to a new study by scientists at McGill University and the Université de Montreal (UdeM).

Social Sciences - Life Sciences - 22.04.2021
Know your ally: Cooperative male dolphins can tell who's on their team
Know your ally: Cooperative male dolphins can tell who’s on their team
When it comes to friendships and rivalries, male dolphins know who the good team players are. New findings, published by University of Bristol researchers, reveal that male dolphins form a social concept of team membership based on cooperative investment in the team. The Bristol researchers, with colleagues from the University of Zurich and University of Massachusetts, used 30 years of observational data from a dolphin population in Shark Bay , Western Australia, and sound playback experiments to assess how male dolphins responded to the calls of other males from their alliance network.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.04.2021
Scientists provide new insights into the citric acid cycle
Scientists provide new insights into the citric acid cycle
High carbon dioxide concentrations are required to allow the central metabolic pathway to run "backwards" / publication in "Nature" The citric acid cycle is an important metabolic pathway that enables living organisms to generate energy by degrading organic compounds into carbon dioxide (COâ‚‚). The first step in the cycle is usually performed by the enzyme citrate synthase, which builds citrate.

Life Sciences - 22.04.2021
"Molecular Tomographer" algorithm maps gene expression in space
Scientists have developed an algorithm that can work out the spatial pattern of gene expression inside the body without the need for microscopes and complicated equipment used currently. As we accumulate more and more gene-sequencing information, cell-type databases are growing in both size and complexity.

Life Sciences - Pedagogy - 22.04.2021
Connecting the Dots Between Engagement and Learning
Carnegie Mellon University April 22, 2021 The adage goes, "If at first you don't succeed, try, try again." But new research from Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh finds that it isn't all about repetition. Rather, internal states like engagement can also have an impact on learning.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.04.2021
A portable device for taking DNA measurements in the field
A portable device for taking DNA measurements in the field
GenoRobotics is an interdisciplinary EPFL project to develop a portable, automated device for extracting and sequencing DNA in any type of environment. The project team hopes their invention will make it easier and faster to map our planet's biodiversity. Preserving the Earth's biodiversity is a crucial challenge.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 21.04.2021
To Design Truly Compostable Plastic, Scientists Take Cues From Nature
To Design Truly Compostable Plastic, Scientists Take Cues From Nature
New technology developed by Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley could steer plastics away from landfills and oceans - and into your backyard compost bin D espite our efforts to sort and recycle, less than 9% of plastic gets recycled in the U.S., and most ends up in landfill or the environment. Biodegradable plastic bags and containers could help, but if they're not properly sorted, they can contaminate otherwise recyclable #1 and #2 plastics.

Life Sciences - 21.04.2021
Hungry Fruit Flies are Extreme Ultramarathon Fliers
In 2005, an ultramarathon runner ran continuously 560 kilometers (350 miles) in 80 hours, without sleeping or stopping. This distance was roughly 324,000 times the runner's body length. Yet this extreme feat pales in comparison to the relative distances that fruit flies can travel in a single flight, according to new research from Caltech.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.04.2021
New point of access for targeting eating disorders and obesity
New point of access for targeting eating disorders and obesity
Scientists find new point of access for targeting eating disorders and obesity Scientists have identified a potential drug target for treating obesity and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, a condition for which no therapeutics are currently available. In a new study scheduled to publish April 21 in Science Translational Medicine, a team of researchers from the University of Michigan and Vanderbilt University pinpoints a protein called melanocortin 3 receptor (or MC3R) as an avenue for accessing the brain circuitry that controls the body's energy balance and food intake.

Health - Life Sciences - 20.04.2021
Simple treatment during pregnancy can protect baby from memory problems in later life, study in rats suggests
Simple treatment during pregnancy can protect baby from memory problems in later life, study in rats suggests
A new study in laboratory rats has discovered a direct link between low oxygen in the womb and impaired memory function in the adult offspring. It also finds that anti-oxidant supplements during pregnancy may protect against this. This study shows that we can use preventative medicine even before birth to protect long term brain health.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.04.2021
Chickens and pigs with built-in genetic scissors
Chickens and pigs with built-in genetic scissors
Genome editing in farm animals Genetically engineered animals provide important insights into the molecular basis of health and disease. Research has focused mainly on genetically modified mice, although other species, such as pigs, are more similar to human physiology. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now generated chickens and pigs in which target genes in desired organs can be efficiently altered.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 19.04.2021
The architect of genome folding
The architect of genome folding
The spatial organization of the genome is fundamental for the regulation of our genes and has to be established de novo during early embryogenesis. By combining powerful Drosophila genetics with 3D chromosome modelling, a collaboration between the Giorgetti group at the FMI and the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg revealed a critical role of the epigenetic regulator HP1 in the establishment of 3D genome organization in the early Drosophila embryo.