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Philosophy - Mathematics
29.01.2018
Indian Sacred Texts and the Logic of Computer Ethics
Indian Sacred Texts and the Logic of Computer Ethics
Can we teach ethical behaviour to machines' Computer Scientists in Vienna are studying ancient Sanskrit texts and using the tools of mathematical logic to describe ethical rules. The Indian sacred texts of the Vedas have been studied for millennia. But now, for the first time in history, computer scientists in Vienna analyse them by applying the methods of mathematical logic.
Life Sciences - Philosophy
27.12.2017
Behind the scenes: journalists visit animal testing lab: "An unusual step": press event to launch the "Principles on the Ethical Treatment of Animals
The white mouse has been anaesthetized. Its little legs have been affixed to a heating plate by means of adhesive strips, and a large amount of gel has been spread over its clean-shaven breast. An ultrasound probe is positioned overhead, and Richard Holtmeier, a member of the team at the European Institute for Molecular Imaging (EIMI) at the University of MŁnster is using this to study how the mouse copes with a plastic catheter which has been inserted into its carotid artery.
Philosophy
05.12.2017
Migrant deaths are 'vastly under-reported' according to new report
Migrant deaths are ’vastly under-reported’ according to new report
The majority of migrant deaths are unrecorded, according to a new report which calls for 'significant improvements' to be made in order to capture the true number of deaths which occur during migration worldwide. The report, the second part of Fatal Journeys Volume 3: Improving data on missing migrants from the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and co-edited by University of Bristol academic Ann Singleton , comes just days after the US pulled out of the United Nations' global compact on migration.
Life Sciences - Philosophy
02.11.2017
Further retraction prompted by UQ investigation
The editors and publishers of the journal Brain Injury have retracted an academic paper following advice from The University of Queensland. UQ Pro-Vice-Chancellor Research Professor Mark Blows said the 2013 paper involved two former UQ staff members who had already had other papers retracted following a UQ investigation.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Philosophy
25.07.2017
Could spraying particles into marine clouds help cool the planet?
Could spraying particles into marine clouds help cool the planet?
The idea of geoengineering, also known as climate engineering, is very controversial. But as greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in our atmosphere, scientists are beginning to look at possible emergency measures. A new University of Washington study looks at the idea of marine cloud brightening , which a UW group is investigating as a promising strategy to offset global warming.
Philosophy
18.07.2017
Hearing a sound can alter perception of finger size
Hearing a sound can alter perception of finger size
Hearing an ascending sound while pulling their own finger can make a person think their finger is longer than it is, finds a new study led by UCL and the Institute of Philosophy, School of Advanced Study, University of London. The study, published in Scientific Reports and funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), provides the first evidence that an artificial sound, unrelated to the sound of body movements, can alter how a person perceives their own body when the sound is arbitrarily paired with a bodily action.
Business/Economics - Philosophy
14.06.2017
‚?‘Purposeful leaders‚'' are winning hearts and minds in workplaces, study finds
‚?‘Purposeful leaders‚’’ are winning hearts and minds in workplaces, study finds
‚?‘Purposeful leaders‚'' are winning hearts and minds in workplaces, study finds People are happier and more productive when their leaders show strong morals, a clear vision and commitment to stakeholders, a new study has found. The growing importance of what is being described as ‘purposeful leadership' for the modern workplace is outlined today in a new report for the CIPD , the professional body for HR and people development.
Philosophy - Social Sciences
07.04.2017
The power of social approval on cooperation
People value their moral reputation to such an extent that they will work to behave well and cooperate with each other rather than risk being judged negatively for their actions, according to new Stanford research. Sociology Professor Robb Willer says a new study shows that moral judgments are a powerful means for encouraging cooperation.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Philosophy
05.04.2017
Public attitudes towards end-of-life care in progressive neurological illness are conflicted, study reveals
Public attitudes towards end-of-life care in progressive neurological illness are conflicted, study reveals
Public attitudes in UK and USA reveal support both for life-sustaining interventions and for measures to enable peaceful death in progressive neurological illness such as dementia, according to a survey carried out by researchers at the University of Cambridge. Debate surrounding assisted dying goes to the heart of clinical ethical principles Gemma Clarke The study found that one in six people believes that measures must be taken to sustain life at any cost even when a patient is in the final stages of an illness such as dementia.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Philosophy
30.01.2017
Why the bar needs to be raised for human clinical trials
Standards for authorizing first-time trials of drugs in humans are lax, and should be strengthened in several ways, McGill University researchers argue in a paper . Standards for authorizing first-time trials of drugs in humans are lax, and should be strengthened in several ways, McGill University researchers argue in a paper .
Environment/Sustainable Development - Philosophy
24.01.2017
Pope’s picture spurs Republicans to shift climate views
After Pope Francis framed climate change as a moral issue in his second encyclical , conservative Republicans shifted and began to see that environmental dilemma in the same way, according to a new study led by Cornell communication researchers. ‘When Pope Francis issued his encyclical paper in June 2015, he emerged as a strong advocate for climate action,' said Jonathon P. Schuldt, assistant professor of communication.
Philosophy
21.12.2016
Emojis’ So does the rest of the world
ANN ARBOR?People worldwide love , except the French, who prefer , according to a new study of global emoji usage. Researchers at the University of Michigan and Peking University analyzed 427 million messages from nearly 4 million smartphone users in 212 countries and regions to see if emoji use was universal or differed based on user location and culture.
Philosophy
19.12.2016
Turns out ‘dirty money' does bother people
Turns out ‘dirty money’ does bother people
People tend to view money through a moral lens and are more likely to turn down or donate stolen bills and coins than ‘clean' cash, a new study has found. Classic economics suggests that the only thing that matters about money is its amount, not what it looks like or where it has been. However, researchers from Yale and the University of Michigan show that people evaluate money based on its moral history.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Philosophy
16.12.2016
From knowledge to certainty
From knowledge to certainty
Research news Evidence is continually growing in importance for political, societal, and individual decisions, despite increasing talk of an impending ‘post-factual era'. Evidence is based on data that is collected in a scientific fashion, but is also a social phenomenon. How and by whom is it created and used, and what impact does this have? This is what a new research group funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and represented by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has set out to investigate.
Philosophy
07.12.2016
More order with less judgment: An optimal theory of the evolution of cooperation
More order with less judgment: An optimal theory of the evolution of cooperation
Optional moral assessment can promote cooperation more effectively than compulsory moral assessment A research team led by Mathematician Tatsuya Sasaki from the University of Vienna presents a new optimal theory of the evolution of reputation-based cooperation. This team proves that the practice of making moral assessments conditionally is very effective in establishing cooperation in terms of evolutionary game theory.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Philosophy
16.11.2016
Moral values influence action on climate change
Two moral values most highly rated by liberals predict willingness to make lifestyle changes to avert climate change, according to Cornell research. The findings also suggest that a moral value rated more highly by conservatives may foster intention to act on climate change. A new multidisciplinary study suggests moral values highly rated by liberals - namely, compassion and fairness - influence willingness to make personal choices to mitigate climate change's impact in the future.
Life Sciences - Philosophy
08.11.2016
Most Mammals Have a Greater Life Expectancy in Zoos
Most Mammals Have a Greater Life Expectancy in Zoos
How long do animals live? Although the question seems trivial, it is not easy to answer - especially in the case of free-ranging animals, as it is extremely difficult to determine accurate dates of birth and death of all members of a specific population. By comparison, zoos meticulously record the births and deaths of the animals in their care.
Business/Economics - Philosophy
01.11.2016
Elephant poaching costs African economies US $25 million per year in lost tourism revenue
New research shows investing in elephant conservation is smart economic policy for many African countries.† We know that within parks, tourism suffers when elephant poaching ramps up. This work provides a first estimate of the scale of that loss Andrew Balmford The current elephant poaching crisis costs African countries around USD $25 million annually in lost tourism revenue, according to a new study published .
Philosophy - Pedagogy/Education Science
05.10.2016
The truth about lying? Children’s perceptions get more nuanced with age
Moral development study suggests that younger children have a binary take on truth and lies - while older children take intent and outcomes more into consideration Parents don't like it when children lie. But what do the kids themselves think about it? New research suggests truth telling isn't black and white.
Social Sciences - Philosophy
05.10.2016
Being kind to others does make you ’slightly happier’
Researchers conclude that being kind to others causes a small but significant improvement in subjective well-being. The review found that the effect is lower than some pop-psychology articles have claimed, but also concluded that future research might help identify which kind acts are most effective at boosting happiness.
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