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Physics - Materials Science - 25.06.2019
New findings could lead to cheaper solar cells
New findings could lead to cheaper solar cells
Effective atomic interactions in complex materials picked up by on-the-fly machine-learning At the atomic scale materials can show a rich palette of dynamic behaviour, which directly affects the physical properties of these materials. For many years, it has been a dream to describe these dynamics in complex materials at various temperatures using computer simulations.

Physics - 21.06.2019
A further step towards reliable quantum computation
A further step towards reliable quantum computation
Physicists develop new method to prove quantum entanglement One of the essential features required for the realization of a quantum computer is quantum entanglement. A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency.

Health - Physics - 20.06.2019
Researchers harness AI to combat colon cancer
Researchers harness AI to combat colon cancer
Engineers have shown that it is technically possible to use an AI system to guide a tiny robotic capsule inside the colon to take microultrasound images. Known as a ‘Sonopill', the device could spell the end for painful endoscopic examinations for patients, where a semi-rigid scope is passed into the bowel.

Physics - Chemistry - 19.06.2019
A crystal with a twist
UC Berkeley and Berkeley Lab researchers created a new crystal built of a spiraling stack of atomically thin germanium sulfide sheets. (UC Berkeley image by Yin Liu) With a simple twist of the fingers, one can create a beautiful spiral from a deck of cards. In the same way, scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have created new inorganic crystals made of stacks of atomically thin sheets that unexpectedly spiral like a nanoscale card deck.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 19.06.2019
Scientists use X-rays from faraway galaxy cluster to reveal secrets of plasma
Most visible matter in the universe doesn't look like our textbook picture of a nucleus surrounded by tethered electrons. Out beyond our borders, inside massive clusters, galaxies swim in a sea of plasma-a form of matter in which electrons and nuclei wander unmoored. Though it makes up the majority of the visible matter in the universe, this plasma remains poorly understood; scientists do not have a theory that fully describes its behavior, especially at small scales.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 19.06.2019
Mineral Discovery Made Easier: X-Ray Technique Shines a New Light on Tiny, Rare Crystals
Mineral Discovery Made Easier: X-Ray Technique Shines a New Light on Tiny, Rare Crystals
Berkeley Lab scientists participate in the discovery of ognitite; other candidate new-mineral studies in progress Like a tiny needle in a sprawling hayfield, a single crystal grain measuring just tens of millionths of a meter - found in a borehole sample drilled in Central Siberia - had an unexpected chemical makeup.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 18.06.2019
Scientists use atoms to simulate quantum physics in curved spacetimes
Black holes fascinate the public and scientists alike because they are where it all breaks down: matter, unlucky stars and space flotsam, and our understanding of physics. And while scientists have chipped away at their mysteries-from capturing the first image of one , to detecting the ripples in space-time they create when colliding-key parts of understanding black holes have escaped them.

Physics - Materials Science - 17.06.2019
You Don't Have to Be Perfect for TMDCs to Shine Bright
You Don’t Have to Be Perfect for TMDCs to Shine Bright
Atomically thin semiconductors known as TMDCs (transition metal dichalcogenides) could lead to devices that operate more efficiently than conventional semiconductors in light-emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. But these materials are hard to make without defects that dampen their performance.

Chemistry - Physics - 17.06.2019
Here Comes the Sun: A New Framework for Artificial Photosynthesis
Here Comes the Sun: A New Framework for Artificial Photosynthesis
Scientists have long sought to mimic the process by which plants make their own fuel using sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water through artificial photosynthesis devices, but how exactly substances called catalysts work to generate renewable fuel remains a mystery.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 17.06.2019
Melting a satellite, a piece at a time
Melting a satellite, a piece at a time
Researchers took one of the densest parts of an Earth-orbiting satellite, placed it in a plasma wind tunnel then proceeded to melt it into vapour. Their goal was to better understand how satellites burn up during reentry, to minimise the risk of endangering anyone on the ground. Taking place as part of ESA's Clean Space initiative, the fiery testing occurred inside a plasma wind tunnel, reproducing reentry conditions, at the DLR German Aerospace Center's site in Cologne.

Physics - 14.06.2019
Building a Better Electron Gun
Building a Better Electron Gun
The successful test of the LCLS-II electron gun ( see related article ) marks the culmination of an R&D effort spanning more than a decade at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). The gun's design was conceived in 2006 by John W. Staples, a retired Berkeley Lab physicist, and Fernando Sannibale, a senior scientist in Berkeley Lab's Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division.

Life Sciences - Physics - 13.06.2019
DNA packaging mechanism of HSV-1, the virus that causes cold sores
A new technique developed by researchers from the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA has allowed them to become the first scientists to clearly see the intricate machinery responsible for compressing DNA into the small interior shell, or capsid, of herpes simplex virus type 1, or HSV-1, the virus responsible for causing cold sores.

Physics - Health - 13.06.2019
Microscopy And VR Illuminate New Ways To Prevent And Treat Disease
A combined research team from Carnegie Mellon University and Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason is pairing a nanoscale imaging technique with virtual reality technology to create a method that allows researchers to "step inside" their biological data. By combining the technique, called expansion microscopy, with virtual reality (VR), scientists will be able to enlarge, explore and analyze cell structures far beyond the capabilities of traditional light microscopy.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 12.06.2019
Gemini Planet Imager analyzes 300 stars
Gemini Planet Imager analyzes 300 stars
Analysis from halfway through the Gemini Planet Imager's planetary survey hints that our solar system may have rare qualities which could possibly be related to the habitability of Earth. Over the past four years, an instrument attached to a telescope in the Chilean Andes - known as the Gemini Planet Imager - has set its gaze on 531 stars in search of new planets.

Materials Science - Physics - 11.06.2019
Pulsed Electron Beams Shed Light on Plastics Production
Pulsed Electron Beams Shed Light on Plastics Production
A new electron microscopy technique developed by Berkeley Lab provides new insight into how plastics are made; could pave way for sustainable plastics Plastics are all around us - they make up our water bottles, trash bags, packing materials, toys, containers, and more. About 300 million tons of plastic are produced worldwide each year, yet the details of what goes on at the atomic scale during the plastics production process is still unclear.

Life Sciences - Physics - 10.06.2019
New method reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo
New method reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo
Characterizing chromosome structure is fundamental to a better understanding of gene expression. Current experimental methods helped to build mechanistic models of chromosome folding, however they could not be formally validated so far by independent techniques. This is what the Giorgetti group just did - thanks to a new method they developed to measure chromosome structure quantitatively in living cells.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 10.06.2019
Technique pulls interstellar magnetic fields within easy reach
The formation of stars in the turbulent billows of gas and dust of the Orion Molecular Cloud, depicted in an illustration based on data from the European Space Agency's Planck satellite. ESA and the Planck Collaboration A new, more accessible and much cheaper approach to surveying the topology and strength of interstellar magnetic fields - which weave through space in our galaxy and beyond, representing one of the most potent forces in nature - has been developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Physics - 10.06.2019
What if Dark Matter is Lighter? Report Calls for Small Experiments to Broaden the Hunt
What if Dark Matter is Lighter? Report Calls for Small Experiments to Broaden the Hunt
Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists are already pursuing new experiments to probe for low-mass dark matter particles The search for dark matter is expanding. And going small. While dark matter abounds in the universe - it is by far the most common form of matter, making up about 85 percent of the universe's total - it also hides in plain sight.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 07.06.2019
Rockets, evaporating droplets and x-raying metals
Rockets, evaporating droplets and x-raying metals
Years of preparation, and the finale is over in six minutes. This month a sounding rocket will launch two ESA experiments to an altitude of 260 km to provide six minutes of weightlessness as they free-fall back to Earth. Rockets carrying satellites into orbit are typically launched from sites around the equator, such as Europe's Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana.

Physics - Chemistry - 07.06.2019
How to separate nanoparticles by
How to separate nanoparticles by "shape"
Physicists develop new strategy to separate molecules In our daily lives, the purpose and function of an item is defined by either its material, e.g. a rain jacket is fabricated of water-proof material, or its shape, e.g. a wheel is round to enable a rolling motion. What is the impact of the two factors on the nanoscale? The impact of material, i.e. the chemistry of the building block, has been excessively varied and the impact on polymer properties investigated leading to new functional materials, as for example slush powders.
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