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Microtechnics - Physics - 06.11.2019
On the way to intelligent microrobots
On the way to intelligent microrobots
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and ETH Zurich have developed a micromachine that can perform different actions. First nanomagnets in the components of the microrobots are magnetically programmed and then the various movements are controlled by magnetic fields. Such machines, which are only a few tens of micrometres across, could be used, for example, in the human body to perform small operations.

Physics - Materials Science - 05.11.2019
World-Leading Microscopes Take Candid Snapshots of Atoms in Their 'Neighborhoods'
World-Leading Microscopes Take Candid Snapshots of Atoms in Their ’Neighborhoods’
Taking the technology to low temperatures could enable advances in materials science and other fields By Jessica Scully Researchers use electron microscopy to produce high-resolution images at the atomic scale of everything from composite nanomaterials to single proteins. The technology provides invaluable information on the texture, chemistry, and structure of these materials.

Physics - Materials Science - 05.11.2019
4D-STEM Microscopes Take Candid Snapshots of Atomic 'Neighborhoods'
4D-STEM Microscopes Take Candid Snapshots of Atomic ’Neighborhoods’
Scientists use powerful 4D-STEM electron microscopy technique to map out the best atomic 'hangouts' in high-performance materials W e can directly see the hidden world of atoms thanks to electron microscopes, first developed in the 1930s. Today, electron microscopes, which use beams of electrons to illuminate and magnify a sample, have become even more sophisticated, allowing scientists to take real-world snapshots of materials with a resolution of less than half the diameter of a hydrogen atom.

Life Sciences - Physics - 04.11.2019
Scientists capture dynamic brain in action
Scientists routinely capture images of the brain in action by focusing on single molecules, cells, or circuits. But visualizing how these tiny units interact to create complex behavior has been a daunting task. Now, in a collaborative, multi-lab effort, researchers at Yale University have developed a way to leverage a pair of microscopic technologies to provide a glimpse of the entire brain at work in real time.

Physics - Materials Science - 04.11.2019
Light-based 'tractor beam' assembles materials at the nanoscale
Light-based ’tractor beam’ assembles materials at the nanoscale
Modern construction is a precision endeavor. Builders must use components manufactured to meet specific standards - such as beams of a desired composition or rivets of a specific size. The building industry relies on manufacturers to create these components reliably and reproducibly in order to construct secure bridges and sound skyscrapers.

Physics - Materials Science - 04.11.2019
Scientists spy unstable semiconductors
Scientists from Cardiff University have, for the first time, spotted previously unseen “instabilities” on the surface of a common compound semiconductor material. The findings could potentially have profound consequences for the development of future materials in the electronic devices that power our daily lives.

Chemistry - Physics - 01.11.2019
New MOF Can Take On Toxic Sulfur Dioxide Gas
New MOF Can Take On Toxic Sulfur Dioxide Gas
An international team has developed a robust material that can selectively take in toxic sulfur dioxide gas at record concentrations and preserve it for use in chemical production. The researchers verified its performance using a combination of techniques that included X-ray experiments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (Berkeley Lab's) Advanced Light Source (ALS).

Physics - Materials Science - 31.10.2019
New technique lets researchers map strain in next-gen solar cells
New technique lets researchers map strain in next-gen solar cells
People can be good at hiding strain, and we're not alone. Solar cells have the same talent. For a solar cell, physical strain within its microscopic crystalline structure can interrupt its core function - converting sunlight into electricity - by essentially "losing” energy as heat. For an emerging type of solar cell, known as lead halide perovskites, reducing and taming this loss is key to improving efficiency and putting the perovskites on par with today's silicon solar cells.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 31.10.2019
Dark Matter Day Q&A with Berkeley Lab Physicist Quentin Riffard
Dark Matter Day Q&A with Berkeley Lab Physicist Quentin Riffard
Quentin Riffard, a project scientist for the LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter detection experiment that is now being installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, shares his experiences in researching dark matter in this Q&A. Today is Dark Matter Day , which is recognized by the Interactions collaboration, an international particle physics communications group.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 29.10.2019
Particle detector for hunting dark matter installed a mile underground
Particle detector for hunting dark matter installed a mile underground
The central component of LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) - the largest direct-detection dark matter experiment in the US - has been slowly lowered 4,850 feet down a shaft formerly used in gold-mining operations by a team involving UCL physicists. Although dark matter accounts for about 27 percent of the universe, we do not know what it is made of and experiments have yet to make direct contact with a particle - it has only been detected through its gravitational effects on normal matter.

Life Sciences - Physics - 29.10.2019
Turning a dangerous toxin into a biosensor
Some bacteria release a toxin that forms pores on other cells. EPFL scientists have studied the pore-forming toxin aerolysin and genetically engineered it to be used as a high-resolution sensor for biological molecules like DNA and proteins. Image: Molecular simulation of an engineered aerolysin pore (light blue color) embedded into a membrane bilayer (cream color) and translocating DNA (red color).

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 29.10.2019
Dark Matter Experiment's Central Component Takes a Deep Dive - Nearly a Mile Underground
Dark Matter Experiment’s Central Component Takes a Deep Dive - Nearly a Mile Underground
This video chronicles the move of the LUX-ZEPLIN central detector, known as the time projection chamber, nearly a mile underground to the research cavern where it will be used to hunt for dark matter. (Credit: Matthew Kapust, Erin Broberg, and Nick Hubbard/Sanford Underground Research Facility) Q: How do you get a 5,000-pound, 9-foot-tall particle detector, designed to hunt for dark matter, nearly a mile underground? A: Very carefully.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 28.10.2019
Mapping the universe in extraordinary detail using UCL lenses
A three-dimensional map of the Universe that reaches deeper in space and time than ever before is one step closer as final testing begins on the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), designed and built in part by UCL physicists. From early 2020, DESI will observe the light from 35 million distant galaxies and 2.4 million quasars over five years to precisely map their distance from Earth and gauge how quickly they are moving away from us.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 28.10.2019
DESI Opens Its 5,000 Eyes to Capture the Colors of the Cosmos
DESI Opens Its 5,000 Eyes to Capture the Colors of the Cosmos
This video highlights the components and statistics that make DESI, the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, unique. Installed on the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, DESI brings high-speed automation to its galaxy-mapping mission. In five years DESI will capture the light from 35 million galaxies and 2.4 million quasars to produce the largest 3D map of the universe.

Physics - Materials Science - 24.10.2019
Living on the Edge: How a 2D Material Got Its Shape
Living on the Edge: How a 2D Material Got Its Shape
Scientists at Berkeley Lab discover that nanoparticles' 'edge energy' gets them in 2D shape for energy storage applications Ever since its discovery in 2004, graphene - an atomically thin material with amazing strength and electrical properties - has inspired scientists around the world to design new 2D materials to serve a broad range of applications, from renewable energy and catalysts to microelectronics.

Physics - Electroengineering - 24.10.2019
The quantum internet is within reach
The quantum internet is within reach
An international team headed by physicists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has, for the first time ever, experimentally implemented secure quantum communication in the microwave band in a local quantum network. The new architecture represents a crucial step on the road to distributed quantum computing.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 23.10.2019
Theorists discover the ’Rosetta Stone’ for neutrino physics
UChicago, Brookhaven, Fermilab scientists find new math identity while studying particle physics Usually the way things work is that mathematicians make math discoveries, and physicists borrow and adapt those ideas to explain the universe. But three physicists at the University of Chicago and two national laboratories have discovered a fundamental identity in linear algebra-based on studying particle physics.

Chemistry - Physics - 22.10.2019
Münster University chemists create new types of Lewis acids
Münster University chemists create new types of Lewis acids
Researchers at the University of Münster have developed a method which makes it possible to create three-coordinate Lewis superacids on the basis of phosphorus. Previously, it had not been possible to isolate this type of compound, either in a liquid or in a solid state, due to its extreme electrophilicity and the associated reactivity.

Chemistry - Physics - 21.10.2019
It takes two - a two-atom catalyst, that is - to make oxygen from water
The search for sustainable approaches to generating new fuels has brought scientists back to one of the most abundant materials on Earth - reddish iron oxide in the form of hematite, also known as rust. Researchers say rust has long been seen as a potentially attractive material for solar water splitting, a key process that plants employ in photosynthesis.

Chemistry - Physics - 21.10.2019
Atomic images reveal unusually many neighbors for some oxygen atoms
Atomic images reveal unusually many neighbors for some oxygen atoms
The identification of new chemical bonds is crucial for the design of new material structures. A team led by Jani Kotakoski at the University of Vienna and Jannik Meyer at the University of Tübingen has found unexpected new configurations of oxygen and nitrogen in graphene. Direct images of the actual atoms and the analysis of Life as we know it is based on just a handful of different types of atoms (called elements), among them carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

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